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Specifics of self-reflection in Achatina fulica
Khvatov I.A., Ph.D. in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of General Psychology and History of Psychology, Moscow University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
Kharitonov A.N., Ph.D. in Psychology, Senior Research Associate, Institute of Psychology, Leading Researcher, MSUPE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Perception of dimensions and limits of own body by Achatina fulica snails was studied experimentally by arranging their foraging behavior in a problem box, the feeder part of which was separated from the starting zone by a compartment with holes of different dimensions. In the process of the experimental task solution (finding way toward food through different holes), the snails appeared to be able to take into consideration the soft part of their bodies, i.e. they made no attempts to pass through the holes too narrow for their soft bodies. However, they were unable to take into consideration the parameters of their shells when the latter prevented them from penetration into the feeding compartment. The unceasing attempts to pass through the holes too narrow for their shells instead of moving along the paths they moved during successful attempts, suggest that the snails do not learn with every next trial. Our explanation is that the snails’ self-reflection is determined mainly by the instinctive mechanisms capable of flexible fine tuning into specific situations making skill formation overdue.
Keywords: psychic reflection, self-reflection, reflection of the environment, evolution and phylogeny of the psyche, molluscs, snail, cockroach