Previous issue (2018. Vol. 11, no. 4)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
Perception of facial expressions during masking and apparent motion
, Doctor in Psychology, Head of Center for Experimental Psychology, MSUPE, Moscow, Russia, email@example.comKorolkova O.A.
, Ph.D. in Psychology, Senior Research Associate, Center for Experimental Psychology, MSUPE, Moscow, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.orgLobodinskaya E.A.
, teacher, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
We studied the impact of apparent motion and masking on basic facial expressions recognition during stroboscopic movement. In Experiment 1, observers (N=53) recognized facial expressions using alternative forced choice of basic emotion labels, in Experiment 2 subjects (N=7) provided free description of facial expressions. Facial expressions were presented for 50, 100 or 200 milliseconds, sandwich-masked by neutral face (series 1), scrambled face (series 2), or without masking (series 3). In series 1, the images sequence of the same identity with different expressions appeared as continual expression change, accompanied by head movements. In series 2 and 3, the face images appeared static. The study showed that context type, expression type and presentation time influence facial expressions recognition and change their categorical structure. Compared to no-mask presentation (series 3), masking and apparent motion reduce the recognition rate, but their influence is based on different mechanisms. Experiment 2 revealed the mechanisms of reduced facial expression recognition in conditions of masking and apparent motion.
Keywords: face perception, emotional expression, visual masking, stroboscopic movement, apparent motion, perceptual genesis
Column: Psychology of Perception
- Aguado L., Serrano-Pedraza I., García-Gutiérrez A. A comparison of backward masking of faces in expression and gender identifcation. Psicológica, 2014, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 171–194.
- Ambadar Z., Schooler J. W., Conn J. F. Deciphering the enigmatic face: The importance of facial dynamics in interpreting subtle facial expressions. Psychological Science, 2005, vol. 16, pp. 403–410.
- Ananyeva K. I., Barabanschikov V. A., Demidov A. A. (Eds.) Litso cheloveka v nauke, iskusstve i praktike [Human face in science, art and practice]. Moscow, Kogito-Tsentr Publ., 2015 (In Russ.).
- Barabanschikov V. A. Ekspressii litsa i ikh vospriyatie [Facial expression and its perception]. Moscow, Institute of Psychology RAS Publ., 2012, 341 p. (In Russ.)
- Barabanschikov V. A. Vospriyatie vyrazhenii litsa [Perception of facial expressions]. Moscow, Institute of Psychology RAS Publ., 2009, 448 p. (In Russ.)
- Barabanschikov V. A., Demidov A. A., Diveev D. A. (Eds.) Litso cheloveka kak sredstvo obshcheniya [Human face as a means of communication]. Moscow, Kogito-Tsentr Publ., 2012 (In Russ.)
- Bassili J. N. Facial motion in the perception of faces and of emotional expression. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1978, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 373–379.
- Bould E., Morris N. Role of motion signals in recognizing subtle facial expressions of emotion. British journal of psychology, 2008, vol. 99, pp. 167–189.
- Bould E., Morris N., Wink B. Recognizing subtle emotional expressions: The role of facial movements. Cognition & Emotion, 2008, vol. 22, pp. 1569–1587.
- Braddick O. J. Low-level and high-level processes in apparent motion. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 1980, vol. 290, no. 1038, pp. 137–151.
- Bruce V., Valentine T. When a nod’s as good as a wink: The role of dynamic information in facial recognition. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, R. N. Sykes (eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues. Chichester, UK, Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, 1988, vol. 1, pp. 169–174.
- Calder A. J., Young A. W., Perrett D. I., Etcoff N. L., Rowland D. Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions. Visual Cognition, 1996, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 81–117.
- Calder A. J., Rhodes G., Jonson M. H., Haxby J. V. (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. N. Y., Oxford University Press. 2011.
- Calvo M. G., Lundqvist D. Facial expressions of emotion (KDEF): Identification under different display-duration conditions. Behavior research methods, 2008, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 109–115.
- Cunningham D. W., Nusseck M., Wallraven C., Bülthoff H. H. The role of image size in the recognition of conversational facial expressions. Computer Animation & Virtual Worlds, 2004, vol. 15, pp. 305–310.
- Cunningham D.W., Wallraven C. Dynamic information for the recognition of conversational expressions. Journal of vision, 2009, vol. 9, pp. 1–17.
- Cutting J. E., Kozlowski L. T. Recognizing Friends by Their Walk: Gait Perception Without Familiarity Cues. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1977, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 353–356.
- Ekman P., Rosenberg E.L. What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
- 15.Fiorentini C., Viviani P. Is there a dynamic advantage for facial expressions? Journal of vision, 2011, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1–15.
- Fiorentini C., Schmidt S., Viviani P. The identification of unfolding facial expressions. Perception, 2012, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 532–555.
- Gibson J. J. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1966.
- Johansson G. Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis. Perception & Psychophysics, 1973, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 201–211.
- Kätsyri J., Sams M. The effect of dynamics on identifying basic emotions from synthetic and natural faces. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 2008, vol. 66, pp. 233–242.
- Knight B., Johnston A. The role of movement in face recognition. Visual Cognition, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 265–273.
- Kolers P.A. Aspects of motion perception. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1972.
- Langner O., Dotsch R., Bijlstra G., Wigboldus D.H.J., Hawk S.T., van Knippenberg A. Presentation and validation of the Radboud Faces Database. Cognition & Emotion, 2010, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1377–1388.
- McArthur L.Z., Baron R.M. Toward an ecological theory of social perception. Psychological Review, 1983, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 215–238.
- Michaels C.F., Turvey M.T. Central sources of visual masking: Indexing structures supporting seeing at a single, brief glance. Psychological Research, 1979, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–61.
- Runeson S., Frykholm G. Kinematic specification of dynamics as an informational basis for person-and-action perception: Expectation, gender recognition, and deceptive intention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1983, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 585–615.
- Turvey M.T. On peripheral and central processes in vision: inferences from an information-processing analysis of masking with patterned stimuli. Psychological review, 1973, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 1–52.
- Wallraven C., Breidt M., Cunningham D.W., Bülthoff H.H. Evaluating the perceptual realism of animated facial expressions. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 2008, vol. 4, pp. 1–20.
- Wehrle T., Kaiser S., Schmidt S., Scherer K.R. Studying the dynamics of emotional expression using synthesized facial muscle movements. Journal of personality and social psychology, 2000, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 105–119.