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Typology of Games in Foreign and National Psychology
Smirnova E.O., Doctor in Psychology, Head of the Center for Psychological and Pedagogical Expertise of Play and Toys, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
This article explains the concept of "play" in the European and national science and presents the games typology accepted in European psychology. The article compares the approaches of Western and Russian scientists to the children's game. Based on the book by B. Hughes "Play Types", the author gives a description of the 16 types of children's games. The fundamental difference between Western scholars’ attitude to the game is the emphasis on creativity and autonomy of children in any form of the game. The role of the adult-moderated games is not to manage children's activity, but to stimulate and support creativity of children, even those including dangerous acts. In contrast to it the national tradition supports the adult’s guidance of the game and his/her leading position in it. The adult translates cultural norms to children and the ways of actions (including game). The teacher directs the actions of the child, respectively, and s/he is responsible for their safety. If Western science treats game as a universal means of adaptation to different areas of reality, the national science stands for the development of consciousness and the motivational sphere of the child.
Keywords: game, playworker, type of game, initiative and independence, adaptation to reality, support of games
Column: Developmental psychology