Russian Psychological Issues PsyJournals.ru
OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice About PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2018. Vol. 14, no. 1)

Web of Science PsycINFO (American Psychological Society) EBSCO Academic Search International database Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory DOAJ ERIH PLUS Higher Attestation Commission Russian Science Citation Index VINITI Database RAS
CrossRef

Cultural-Historical Psychology

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 1816-5435

ISSN (online): 2224-8935

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/chp

Started in 2005

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal

Affiliated ISCAR

 

Perception of Visual Stimuli: Specifics of Eye Movements by Representatives of Different Cultures

Shabalina O.I., Ph.D. in Philosophy, Docent Department of Marketing, Higher School of Economics and Management, South-Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia, olgashabalinachina@gmail.com
Contreras M.R., Doctor in Sociology, Professor, Management Science Department, Universidad de Occidente, Culiacan, Mexico, marcelac25@hotmail.com
Feng L., Senior instructor of English, Assistant Dean, International Education College, Shandong University of Business and Technology, Yantai, China, ytllf@126.com
Abstract
The present research explores the impact of native language on perception patterns of monolingual students from China, Russia, Mexico, the USA, and bilingual students from India. The research findings, obtained with verbal protocols, demonstrate statistically significant differences in the way representatives of different cultures perceive information and prove the hypothesis according to which the principles of sentence organization in native languages determine the focus of perception and gaze direction in individuals. In particular, with a = 0.01, 0.05 and 0.005 American students are focused on the object and demonstrate linear gaze direction, whereas Russian, Chinese, Mexican, and Indian students are focused on the field and demonstrate chaotic, unstructured gaze direction. Differences in perception patterns explain the co-existence of local and Western approaches to advertisement layout design in national and multicultural markets around the world, which makes them all in all an important issue for consideration in global advertising.

Keywords: native perception patterns, focus of perception, gaze direction, native language, cognitive styles of North Americans and East Asians, advertisement layout

Column: Crosscultural and Ethnopsychological Researches

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/chp.2018140207

For Reference

References
  1. Barabanshhikov V.A. Aitreking v psikhologicheskoi nauke i praktike [Eyetracking in Psychological Science and Practice]. Moscow: Kogito-Centr, 2015.
  2. Velichkovskii B.M., Zinchenko V.P., Luriya A.R. Psikhologiya vospriyatiya [Psychology of perception]. Moscow: Publ. Mosk. un-a, 1973.
  3. Vygotskii L.S. Myshlenie i rech’: Psihologicheskoe issledovanie [Thinking and speech]. Moscow, Leningrad: Social’no-ekonomicheskoe Publ., 1934.
  4. Vygotskii L.S., Luria A.R. Etyudy po istorii povedeniya: Obez’yana. Primitiv. Rebenok [Studies on the history of behavior: Ape, primitive, and child]. Moscow: Pedagogika- Press, 1993.
  5. Gippenreiter Yu.B. Dvizheniya chelovecheskogo glaza [Human eye movements]. Moscow: Publ. Mosk. un-ta, 1978.
  6. Zaporozhets A.V. Razvitie vospriyatiya i deyatel’nost’ [Perception development and activity]. Materialy 30-go simpoziuma XVIII Mezhdunarodnogo psikhologicheskogo kongressa «Vospriyatie i deistvie» [Proceedings of the 30th symposium of 18th International Psychological Congress «Perception and action»]. Moscow, 1966, pp. 35—44.
  7. Zinchenko V.P., Vergiles N.Yu. Formirovanie zritel’nogo obraza: issledovanie deyatel’nosti zritel’noi sistemy [Visual image formation: A study into visual system activity]. Moscow: Publ. Mosk. un-ta, 1969.
  8. Luria A.R. Yazyk i soznanie [Language and consciousness]. Moscow: Publ. Mosk. un-ta, 1979.
  9. Falikman M.V., Cole M. «Kul’turnaya revolyuciya» v kognitivnoi nauke: ot neironnoi plastichnosti do geneticheskikh mekhanizmov priobreteniya kul’turnogo opyta [«Cultural revolution» in cognitive science: from neuroplasticity to genetic mechanisms of acculturation]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2014. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 4—18. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  10. Shabalina O.I. Ritorika guanxi reklamnyh kommunikacii v Kitae [Guanxi rhetoric of advertising communications in China]. Sovremennye issledovaniya social’nyh problem (elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal) [Modern Research of Social Problems (Electronic Science Journal)], 2013. Vol. 4 (24), pp. 646—684. doi: 10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33.
  11. Shabalina O.I. Vliyanie faktora kul’tury na sposoby modelirovaniya informacii o produkte v rossiiskoi reklame [Culture and its impact on design of product information in Russian advertising]. Evropeiskii zhurnal social’nyh nauk (Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal) [European Social Science Journal (International Science Journal)], 2013a. Vol. 2, no. 12 (39), pp. 291—298.
  12. Yarbus A.L. Rol’ dvizhenii glaz v processe zreniya [Role of eye movement in viewing process]. Moscow: Nauka, 1965.
  13. Boroditsky L. Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers’ conception of time. Cognitive Psychology, 2001. Vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1—22.
  14. Boroditsky L. 2003. Linguistic relativity. In L. Nadel (Ed.) Encyclopaedia of cognitive science. London: MacMillan Press, 2003, pp. 917—921.
  15. Chua H., Boland J., Nisbett R. Cultural variation in eye movements during scene perception. The National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC1194960 (Accessed: June 23.06. 2016).
  16. Cole M. Cultural Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.
  17. Cyr D., Trevor-Smith H. Localization of Web design: An empirical comparison of German, Japanese, and U.S. website characteristics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 2004. Vol. 55, no. 13, pp. 1—10.
  18. Ervin S.M., Osgood C.E. Second language learning and bilingualism. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1954. Vol. 49, pp. 139—146.
  19. Göksun T., Hirsh-Pasek K., Golinkoff R.M. Trading spaces: carving up events for learning language. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2010. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 33—42.
  20. Hall E.T. Beyond Culture. New York: Random House, 1976.
  21. Hunt E., Agnoli F. The Whorfian hypothesis: A cognitive psychology perspective. Psychological Review, 1991. Vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 377—389.
  22. Imai M., Li L., Haryu E., Okada H., Hirsh-Pasek K., Golinkoff R., Shigematsu J. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-Speaking children. Child Development, 2008. Vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 979—1000.
  23. Imai M., Masuda T. The role of language and culture in universality and diversity of human concepts. In M. Gelfand, C.-Y. Chiu, Y.-Y. Hong (Eds.) Advances in culture and psychology: Volume 3. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 1—61.
  24. Indira Y.J. Topic-prominence and zero NP-anaphora in Marathi and Hindi. In M.A. Jazayery, W. Winter (Eds.) Languages and cultures: studies in honor of Edgar C. Polomē. Berlin; New York; Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter, 1988, p. 309.
  25. Levinson C.S. Language and space. Annual Review of Anthropology, 1996. Vol. 25, pp. 353—382.
  26. Li C.N., Thompson S.A. Subject and topic: A new typology of language. In C.N. Li (Ed.) Subject and topic. New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 474—475.
  27. Li C.N., Thompson S.A. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional reference grammar. Berkley: University of California Press, 1981.
  28. Lucy A.J. Grammatical categories and cognition: A case study of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  29. Luna D., Peracchio L.A. Advertising to bilingual consumers: The impact of code-switching or persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 2005. Vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 760—765.
  30. Markus H.R., Kitayama S. Culture and self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 1991. Vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 224—253.
  31. Masuda T., Gonzalez R., Kwan L., Nisbett R. Culture and aesthetic preference: Comparing the attention to context of East Asians and Americans. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2008. Vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1236—1248.
  32. Masuda T., Wang H., Ito K. Cultural influence on web-designs. Culture and the Internet environment: Comparing complexity of designs among Canadian, American, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Webpages. The annual meeting of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology. Poster. Albuquerque, NM, 2008.
  33. Masuda T., Nisbett R.E. Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2001. Vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 922—934.
  34. Miao X. Word order and semantic strategies in Chinese sentence comprehension. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 1981. Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 109—122.
  35. Nisbett R. The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently …and why. New York (NY): The Free Press, 2003.
  36. Nisbett R., Masuda T. Culture and point of view. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2003, vol. 100, pp. 11163—11175. Doi: 10.1073/pnas.1934527100.
  37. Nisbett R., Peng K., Choi I., Norenzayan A. Culture and system of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 2001. Vol. 108, pp. 291—310.
  38. Nisbett R.E., Miyamoto Y. The influence of culture: Holistic versus analytic perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2005. Vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 467—473.
  39. Oppenheimer D.M. The secret life of fluency. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2008. Vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 237—241.
  40. Payne J.W. Task complexity and contingent processing in decision-making: An information search and protocol analysis. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 1976. Vol. 16, pp. 366—387.
  41. Payne J., Ragsdale E. Verbal protocols and direct observation of supermarket shopping behaviour: Some findings and a discussion of methods. Advances in Consumer Research, 1978. Vol. 5, pp. 571—577.
  42. Robeson D., Davies I., Davidoff J. Colour categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2000. Vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 369—398.
  43. Sapir E. The grammarian and his language, 1924. URL: www.bible-researcher.com/sapir2.html (Accessed: 08.01. 2016).
  44. Sapir E. Language. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1921.
  45. Senzaki S., Masuda T., Ishii K. When is perception top-down and when is it not? Culture, narrative, and attention. Cognitive Science, 2014. Vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1493—1506.
  46. Senzaki S., Masuda T., Nand K. Holistic versus analytic expressions in artworks: cross-cultural differences and similarities in drawings and collages by Canadian and Japanese school-age children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014. Vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1297—1316.
  47. Senzaki S., Masuda T., Takada A., Okada H. The communication of culturally dominant modes of attention from parents to children: A comparison of Canadian and Japanese parent-child conversations during a joint scene description task, 2016. URL: http://journals.plos.org/ plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147199 (Accessed: 27.06. 2016).
  48. Shabalina O. Perception patterns of bilingual Indian students and implications in developing ad layouts. Improving Business Practice through Marketing Insight: Proceedings of 2015 AMA Marketing Summer Educators’ Conference, 2015, vol. 26, D56—57. URL: http://toc.proceedings.com/28684webtoc.pdf (Accessed: 23.05.2016).
  49. Shabalina O., Feng L. 2013. Understanding Chinese students’ perception pattern and its implication for global advertising practitioners. The 3rd international conference in cross-cultural management & the 7th cross-strait conference on business management. Program & Abstracts. Shanghai, 2013, p. 75.
  50. Simon H.A. Discussion: Cognition and social behaviour. In J.S. Carroll, J.W. Payne (Eds.), Cognition and social behaviour. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1976, pp. 187—188.
  51. Sun H. Building a culturally competent corporate web site: An explanatory study of cultural markers in multilingual web design. SIGDOC ’01, 2001, October 21—24, pp. 95—102.
  52. Svenonius P. (Ed.). Subjects, expletives, and the EPP (Oxford studies in comparative syntax). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  53. Tajima Y., Duffield N. Linguistic versus cultural relativity: On Japanese-Chinese differences in picture description and recall. Cognitive Linguistics, 2012. Vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 675—709.
  54. Yuri M., Nisbett R.E., Masuda T. Culture and the physical environment. Holistic versus analytical perceptual affordances. Psychological Science, 2006. Vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 113—119.
  55. Wang H., Masuda T., Ito K., Rashid M. How much Information? East Asian and North American cultural products and information search performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2012. Vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1539—1551.
  56. Wedel M., Pieters P. Eye fixations on advertisements and memory for brands: A model and findings. Marketing Science, 2000. Vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 297—312.
  57. Whorf B. Language, thought, reality. Cambridge, MA: Technology Press of MIT, 1956.
  58. Witkin H.A., Dyk R.B., Faterson H.F., Goodenough D.R., Karp S.A. Psychological differentiation. Potomac: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974.
  59. Zhang S., Schmitt B. Language-dependent classification: The mental representation of classifiers in cognition, memory, and ad evaluations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1998. Vol. 4, pp. 375—385.
comments powered by Disqus
 
About PsyJournals.ruLaureate of the XIV National psychological contest «Golden Psyche» at the results of 2012

© 1997–2018 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved

PsyJournals.ru in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE NEW!

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube Яндекс.Метрика