Previous issue (2019. Vol. 15, no. 1)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
Child Development: Two Paradigms
, Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor, Academic Supervisor, Institute of Childhood, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
There are two ways of comprehending child development. The first one stresses the cultural essence of man. It regards the child as a human being that has not yet acquired culture and is faced with the task of its acquisition. The important part of culture is the system of norms, including various means and patterns, the so-called ‘ideal forms’. The bearer of these ideal forms and culture is the adult. The zone of proximal development is not for inventing new forms of culture, but for mastering the norms that already exist. Another approach sees the child as an individual with endless, limitless abilities. Thus the task that arises before the adult is to ensure that the child’s potential is fulfilled. This implies reaching out beyond the limits of the zone of proximal development as the abilities are limitless. And that, in turn, implies another space, aimed at new forms of culture which have not yet existed. We have called this the space of child actualization. In this space, the child’s role is the leading one. In its very sense this space is the opposite of the zone of proximal development where the acquisition of the old norms occurs (i.e. the assimilation of the child into culture); on the contrary, the space of actualization is a place where new norms are created, where the adult helps the child to implement the latter’s intentions, and where culture is assimilated into the child.
Veraksa N.Ye., Veraksa A.N. Proektnaya deyatel’nost’ v
detskom sadu [Project activity in preschool]. Мoscow: Mozaika-Sintez, 2014. 64
Vygotsky L.S. Sobranie sochinenii: V 6-ti t. T. 3.
Problemy razvitiya psikhiki [Collected works : in 6 volumes. V. 3. Problems of
mental development]. Mosccow: Pedagogika, 1983. 368 p.
Vygotsky L.S. Lektsii po pedologii [Lectures in pedology].
Izhevsk: Publishing House of Udmurt University, 1996. 301 p.
Leontiev A.N. Psikhologicheskie osnovy razvitiya rebenka i
obucheniya [Psychological foundations of child development and education].
Moscow: Smysl, 2009. 426 p.
Remorenko I.M., Shiyan O.A., Shiyan I.B., Shtmis T.G.,
Le-van T.N., Kozmina Ya.Ya., Sivak E.V. Kluchevye problemy realizacii FGOS DO
po itogam issledovaniya s ispol’zovaniem «Shkal dlya kompleksnoi ocenki
kachestva obrazovaniya v DOO (ECERS-R)»: «Moskva-36» [Key Issues for the
Implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool
Education According to the Results of Applying ECERS-R: “Moscow-36”].
Sovremennoe doshkol’noe obrazovanie. Teoriya i praktika [Preschool
Education Today. Theory and Practice], 2017, no. 2, pp.16—31.
Elkonin D.B. Izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy [Collected
psychological works]. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1989. 560 p.
Elkonin D.B. Psikhologii igry [Psychology of play].
Мoscow: Pedagogika, 1978.
Alasuutari M. Voicing the child? A case study in Finnish
early childhood education. Childhood, 2014, no. 21, pp. 242—259.
Alasuutari M., Markstrom A.-M. The Making of the Ordinary
Child in Preschool. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 2011,
no. 55:5, pp. 517—535.
Canella G.S. Deconstructing early childhood education:
social justice and revolution. New York: Peter Lang, 1997.
Cheung P.R.H. Teacher-child directed versus
child-centered: the challenge of promoting creativity in Chinese preschool
classrooms. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 2017, no. 1, pp.
Einarsdottir J. Children’s perspectives on the role of
preschool teachers. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal,
2014, no. 5, pp. 679—697.
Formosinho J., Figueiredo I. Promoting equity in an early
years context: the role of participatory educational teams. European Early
Childhood Education Research Journal, 2014, no. 3, pp. 397—411.
Miller E., Almon J. Crisis in the kindergarten: Why
children need to play in school. College Park: Alliance for Childhood,
Sargeant J., Gillett-Swan J. Empowering the disempowered
through voice-inclusive practice: Children’s views on adult-centric educational
provision. European Educational Research Journal, 2015, no. 14(2), pp.
Singer E. Play and playfulness in early childhood
education and care. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2015, no.
8(2), pp. 27—35.
Walker L.J., Taylor J.H. Family Interactions and the
Development of Moral Reasoning. Child Development, 1991, no. 62, pp.