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Noetic Dimension of Human Being: Viktor Frankl's Contribution to Psychology and Psychotherapy
Orlov A.B., PhD in Psychology, Professor at the Psychology faculty, the State University "Higher School of Economics". The head of the Institute of Practical Psychology, the State University "Higher School of Economics". Director of "Trialog" counselling centre., Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
Shumsky V.B., PhD in Psychology, Moscow, Russia, firstname.lastname@example.org
In contrast with the majority of psychologists who base their theories on the division between the physical and the psychical, Frankl uses the division between the physical, psychical and the noetic. This is crucial for both psychological theory and practice (therapy and counselling). The article demonstrates in what way the key logotherapy techniques, paradoxical intention and de reflection, are determined by Frankl's theoretical constructions. The authors argue that Frankl's contribution consists in developing a new philosophy of psychotherapy, and not only in elaborating new techniques. This philosophy accentuates the noetic dimension of a human being, the dimension of his or her essence and existence. A passage from the traditional therapy - linked exclusively to the psychophysical level of humanity - to the new one is a step towards a therapy which helps people experience themselves as noetic beings.