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Poddyakov A.N., PhD in Psychology, Professor, Faculty of Psychology, Department of General and Experimental Psychology, ,, State University — Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com
The paper contains evidence that within a traditional concept of altruism representations of two essentially different types of non.egoistic aims and behaviors are not differentiated. The first type supposes a general humanistic aim to help other people without their special differentiation. The second type supposes that a subject while ignoring his own interests helps another subject in a particular way - by doing damage to his rivals. The concept «alternative altruism», or «alter.altruism» is proposed for the latter type of attitude and behavior. The classification of different human activities in a three-dimensional space «cooperation.counteraction-execution/ reflection» is presented. Manifestations of alter.altruism towards «enemies» and «allies» are being described. Moral dilemmas of alter-ltruistic activities are discussed and future research aims are set.