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Культурно-историческая психология

Издатель: Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет

ISSN (печатная версия): 1816-5435

ISSN (online): 2224-8935

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/chp

Лицензия: CC BY-NC 4.0

Издается с 2005 года

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Motives, emotion, and change 1306

Дэниелс Г., PhD, профессор, научный сотрудник, факультет образования, колледж Грин Темплтон, Оксфорд, Великобритания, harry.daniels@education.ox.ac.uk

Аннотация

Understanding the societal formation of motives was central to an overall thesis of the cultural historical formation of mind. . In the cultural historical phase of L. S. Vygotsky’s writing he strove to understand the development of psychological functioning in relation to the situation in which that development was taking place. A weak point in this work has been with respect to the way in which specific institutions mediate societal motives, how they stand between society and the person. This paper will explore some of the personal motivational implications of the process of moving from one institutional situation to another. It will discuss the ways in which institutions recontextualise societal motives and thus mediate an individual’s engagement with the social world. It is also argued that when processes of institutional recontextualisation are understood alongside non dualist accounts of functioning then perhaps we will understand more about the personal challenges of moving from one situation to another.

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Фрагмент статьи

This chapter will explore some of the personal motivational implications of the process of moving from one situation to another. In the cultural historical phase of L. S. Vygotsky’s writing he strove to understand the development of psychological functioning in relation to the situation in which that development was taking place. This view will be the point of departure for a consideration of the transformations that take place when a person moves from one institutional situation to another. I will discuss the ways in which institutions recontextualise societal motives and thus mediate an individual’s engagement with the social world. When viewed from this perspective transitions between institutions may require engagement with new recontextualisations of societal motives.

Theorising the notion of situation and transition

In order to understand the implications of moving from one situation to another it is first necessary to consider the accounts that are in circulation about the psychological implications of the setting in which human activity is situated. This section of the chapter will thus provide an outline of theories of situatedeness before moving to discuss theories of transition from one situation to another.

Situatedness has been discussed in a variety of ways. As E. Bredo [8] notes situated cognition may be seen as «shifting the focus from individual in environment to individual and environment» [8] whereas theories of situated action and learning as J. Lave [34] notes are more concerned with the «everyday activity of persons acting in (a) setting» [34]. The latter’s emphasis being on the study of «emergent, contingent nature of human activity, the way activity grows directly out of the particularities of a given situation».

Those who emphasize the situated character of learning often affirm that knowledge is situated or grounded in particular activities and social contexts. It emphasizes the socio-cultural nature of learning. However, there is a deeper interpretation of situated learning:

It is a theory about the nature of human knowledge, claiming that knowledge is dynamically constructed as we conceive of what is happening to us especially, our conception of our activity within a social matrix shapes and constrains what we think, do, and say. That is, our action is situated in our role as a member of a community [11].

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