Психология и право 2011. № 2.
AD/HD and criminality: Differential diagnostic and therapetic/prophylactic aspects (A general literature study and a description of Norwegian challeges in the field) 701
Хартвиг П., Ph.D., психиатр, старший научный сотрудник Центра исследований и образования в области судебной психиатрии Университетcкого госпиталя г. Осло, Осло, Норвегия, firstname.lastname@example.org
The impact of AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) as a background factor for criminal activity is under discussion, both in the society and among professionals within psychiatry/psychology and other medical disciplines. A central topic in the discussion is whether a useful reduction of such activity can be reached by pharmacological treatment of the disorder. Studies of relevant international literature, mainly through the last 15 years have been made in the Medline/PubMed databases by combination of the terms AD/HD, and ASPD (Antisocial Personality Disorder). Additional literature has also been gathered. The main focus has been on young adult persons and upwards in age, much less on childhood and early adolescence. The literature shows that adult AD/HD and ASPD show distinctly common features, but also definite differences, both in clinical and neuro-physiological/-chemical respects. A priori, a pharmacological treatment of well diagnosed adult AD/HD, even in co-morbidity with ASPD, might be beneficial. Mostly used are the central stimulants methylphenidate and dexamphetamine, but atomoxetine, related to modern antidepressants, has also been introduced and validated. In Norway there has been an initial optimism leading to many, and at times weakly grounded, attempts to treat imprisoned or paroled persons with central stimulants. The results have been varying and often disappointing. This process and a current opinion on state of the art of such treatment will be described in the last part of the article.
Through later years, the Norwegian and international media
have had many contributions regarding the possible causal effect from AD/HD
(Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) on criminal behaviour, and there
seems to be uncertainty and partly disagreement among professionals in the
psychiatric field regarding to which degree this is a fact. On this background
the author has performed studies of relevant recent and older scientific
literature, which will be displayed and given reflections to. Only a limited
part of the studied literature will be referred specifically. The main focus in
the article is AD/HD among adults from young age and upwards; references to
studies in child and early youth ages are less focused.
There is both a qualitative and quantitative difference in
the occurrence of adult AD/HD in men and women. Trans-nationally, prevalence in
men of 4.1 and 2,7 % in women has been reported . Prevalence and
characteristics of the disorder in the population of female prisoners (in
Norway 5 % of the imprisoned) is an interesting research challenge, but the
gender aspect will be treated only to a small extent in this article.
Interested readers are referred to a recent German study on this aspect .
The core in the literature search has been associations between AD/HD and
Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). These terms and others following in the
article are chosen from the American psychiatric diagnostic system DSM-IV ,
because this is most often used in international research connections. The
official diagnostic system in Norway and many other countries, ICD-10 , has
related, but not identical names for the corresponding diagnostic groups.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Washington DC: APA, 1994.
Blair R. J. R. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial
personality disorders, and psychopathy, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and
Psychiatry 2001; 71: 727−31.
Blair R. J. R. Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. Br J Psychiatry
2003; 182: 5−7.
Blum K. ed. Handbook of Psychiatric Genetics. Boca Raton, Fl: CRC
Chen T., Blum K., Mathews D., Fisher L., Schnautz N., Braverman E.R. et
al. Are dopamine genes involved in a predisposition to pathological
aggression? Medical Hypotheses 2005; 65: 703−7.
Comings D. E., Chen T., Blum K., Blum S. H. Neurogenic interactions
and aberrant behavioural co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (AD/HD): dispelling myths. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005: 2−50.
Cooke D. J., Forth A. E., Hare R. D. Psychopathy: Theory, Research
and Implication for Society. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
Dabbs J. M. jr., Jurkovic I., Frady R. L. Salivary testosterone and
cortisol among late adolescent male offenders. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1991;
Dadds M. R., Rhodes T. Aggression in young children with concurrent
callous-unemotional traits: can the neurosciences inform progress and
innovation in treatment approaches? Phil Trans R Soc B 2008; 363: 2567− 6.
De Lisi M., Umphress Z. R., Vaughn M. G. The criminology of the
amygdala. Crim Justice Behav. 2009; 36: 1241−52.
Directorate of Social and Health Affairs. Manual for diagnosis and
treatment of AD/HD- IS 1244. (In Norwegian). Oslo: Shdir, 2005.
Doyle R. The history of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2004; 27: 203−14.
Ellis L., Walsh A. Criminology: A global perspective. Boston MA:
Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
Fallgatter A. J., Ehlis A. C., Rosler M., Strik W. K., Blocher D.,
Herrmann M. J. Diminished prefrontal brain function in adults with
psychopathology in childhood related to attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2005; 138: 157−-69.
Farrington D. P., Loeber R., Kammen W. B. Long term outcome of
hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention deficit and conduct problems in childhood.
In: Robins L. N., Rutter M. (Еds). Straight and devious pathways from childhood
to adulthood (pp. 62-81). Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 1990.
Fayad J., De Graf R., Kessler R., Alonso J., Angermeyer M., Demyttenaere
K. et al. Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190:
Fazel S., Doll H., Långstrøm N. Mental disorders among adolescents
in juvenile detention and correctional facilities: a systematic review and
meta-regression analysis of 25 surveys. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2008; 47(9): 1010−9.
Fazel S., Danesh J. Serious mental disorder in 23 000
prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys. Lancet 2002; 359: 545−550.
Filipek P.A., Semrud-Clikeman M., Steingard R. J., Renshaw P. F.,
Kennedy D. N., Biederman J. Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects
having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal conrols. Neurology
1997; 48: 589−601.
Frankle W. G., Lombardo I., New A. S., Goodman M., Talbot P. S., Huang
Y. et al. Brain serotonin transporter distribution in subjects with
impulsive aggressivity: a positron emission study with (11C) DASB. Biol
Psychiatry 2005; 162: 915−23.
Gudjonsson G., Sigurddson J., Young S., Newton A., Peersen M.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) How do ADHD symptoms relate to
personality among prisoners? Pers Individ Dif. 2009; 47: 64−8.
Hare R. D. Manual for the Hare Psychopathy checklist-Revised.
Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, 1992.
Johannsson P., Kerr M., Andershed H. Linking adult psychopathy with
childhood hyperactivity-impulsivity-attention problems and conduct problems
through retrospective self-reports. J Pers Disord. 2005; 19: 94−101.
Kessler R. C., Adler L. A., Barkley R. A., Biederman J., Conners C. K.,
Araone C. V. et al. Patterns and predictors of
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persistence into adulthood: results
from the national comorbidity survey replication. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57:
Lynam D. Early identification of chronic offenders: Who is the
fledgling psychopath? Psychol Bull. 1996; 120: 209−34.
Manuzza S., Klein R. G., Bessler A., Malloy P., La Padula M. Adult
psychiatric status of hyperactive boys brown up. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:
McArdle P. Attention–deficit hyperactivity disorder and life-span
development. Br J Psychiatry 2004; 184: 468−9.
McGough J. J., Barkley R. A. Diagnostic controversies in adult
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161:
Myhr K. Atomoxetin in the treatment of AD/HD (In Norwegian). Tidsskr
Nor Laegeforen. 2006; 126: 457−8.
National knowledge centre for the health service. Treatment with central
stimulants of AD/HD in adults. (In Norwegian). Oslo: The knowledge centre,
Paris J. A Biopsychosocial Model of Psychopathy. In: Millon T.,
Simonsen E., Birket-Smith M., Davis R. (Eds). Psychopathy, Antisocial, Criminal
and Violent Behavior (pp.277−90). New York, London: The Guilford Press,
Prior M., Sanson A. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; a
critique. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1986; 27: 307−19.
Raine A., Lenz T., Bihrle S., Lacasse L., Colletti P. Reduced grey
matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality
disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 119−27.
Rasmussen K., Almvik R., Levander S. Attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder, reading disability, and personality disorders in a prison population.
J Am Acad psychiatry Law 2001; 29: 186−93.
Remschmidt H. Global consensus on AD/HD/HKD. Eur Child Adolesc
Psychiatry 2005; 14: 127−37.
Robins L.N. Deviant children grown up. Baltimore: Williams &
Røsler M., Retz W., Yaqoobi K., Burg E., Retz-Junginger P. Attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder in female offenders: prevalence, psychiatric
comorbidity and psychosocial implications. Eur Arch psychiatry Clin Neurosci.
2008; 259: 98−105.
Røsler M., Retz W., Retz-Junginger P., Hengesch G., Schneider M.,
Supprian T. et al. Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) and comorbid disorders in young male prison inmates. Eur Arch Psychiatry
Clin Neurosci. 2004; 254: 365−71.
Scarpa A., Raine A. The psychophysiology of antisocial behaviour:
Interactions with environmental experiences. In: Walsh A, Ellis L (Еds).
Biosocial Criminology: Challenging environmentalism’s supremacy (pp. 209-26).
Hauppage, NY: Nova Science, 2003.
Schilling C. M., Walsh A., Yun I. ADHD and criminality: A primer on
the genetic, neurobiological, evolutionary, and treatment literature for
criminologists. J Crim Justice 2010, e-pub ahead of print.
Spivak B., Vered Y., Yoran-Heresch R., Averbuch E., Mester R., Graf E.
et al. Circulatory levels of catecholamines, serotonin and lipids in
attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999; 99:
Søderstrøm H., Sjødin A. K., Carlstedt A., Forsman A. Adult
psychopathic personality with childhood-onset hyperactivity and conduct
disorder: a central problem constellation in forensic psychiatry. Psychiatry
Res 2004; 121: 271−80.
Torgersen S., Cramer V., Kringlen E. Mental disorders in different
town districts in Oslo (In Norwegian). Norsk Epidemiologi 2002; 12: 265−8.
Torgersen T., Gjervan B., Rasmussen K. ADHD in adults: A study of
clinical characteristics, impairment and comorbidity. Nord J Psychiatry 2006;
60: 38 −43.
Van de Wiel N. M., Van Goozen S. H., Matthys W., Snoek H., Van Engeland
H. Cortisol and treatment effect in children with disruptive behaviour
disorders: a preliminary study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 43:
Vevera J., Zukov I., Morcinek T., Papezova H. Cholesterol
concentrations in violent and non- violent women suicide attempters. Eur
Psychiatry 2003; 18: 23−27.
Walder D. J., Walker E. F., Lewine R. J. Cognitive functioning,
cortisol release, and symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. Biol
Psychiatry 2000; 48: 1121−32.
Waschbusch D., Pelham W. jr., Jennings J., Greiner A., Tarter R., Moss
H. Reactive aggression in boys with disruptive behavior disorders:
behavior, physiology, and affect. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002; 30:
Webster C. D., Jackson M. A. A clinical perspective on impulsivity.
In: Webster C.D., Jackson M.A. (Eds). Impulsivity,Theory, Assessment, and
Treatment. New York, London: The Guilford Press, 1997, 13−31.
Yang Y., Raine A., Lenz T., Bihrle S., Lacasse L., Colletti P.
Volume reduction in prefrontal grey matter in unsuccessful criminal
psychopaths. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 1103−8.
Aanonsen N.O. AD/HD, Diagnosis, clinic and treatment in adults (In
Norwegian). Oslo Gyldendal Akademisk, 2000.