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Психология и право

Издатель: Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет

ISSN (online): 2222-5196

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/psylaw

Лицензия: CC BY-NC 4.0

Издается с 2010 года

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Running head: Relative judgment. When the relative judgment theory proved to be false 716

Леви А.М., Ph.D., Израиль, avmlevi@bezeqint.net

Аннотация

A commonly accepted theory is that when witnesses can identify culprits in lineups, they will concentrate on him. On the other hand, when they cannot they compare between lineup members and choose the person most similar to the culprit. Therefore they will divide their gaze more equally between foils. An eye tracker was used with a 48-person lineup (four screens with twelve photos in each) in an attempt to demonstrate the superiority of gaze behavior over the verbal response. Surprisingly witnesses usually concentrated on some foil as much as they did on the target. Alternate theories are required to explain the reduction of false identifications in sequential lineups. The advantage of large lineups was demonstrated. Police may use them in conjunction with eye trackers to find culprits that witnesses focus on despite saying that they are absent, the only known method to increase correct identifications.

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Фрагмент статьи

The lineup is a procedure in which a person suspected by the police of having committed a crime is shown the suspect, along with a number of known innocent people ("foils"). If a witness chooses the suspect, this is taken as evidence of his guilt by the courts. The lineup is the safest eyewitness identification procedure. However, it is far from perfect. There is ample evidence that witnesses often choose someone who is not the culprit (Conners et al., 1996; Scheck, Neufeld, & Dwyer, 2001, Wells et al., 1998). When they choose someone who is not the suspect but a known innocent, the police know that they have erred. However, by chance witnesses choose a suspect who is innocent 1/N times, where N is the lineup size. With the common American lineup size of six, this will happen 1/6=0.167, or almost 17% of the time.

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Литература
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