Портал психологических изданий PsyJournals.ru
Каталог изданий 94Рубрики 51Авторы 8279Ключевые слова 20372 Online-сборники 1 АвторамRSS RSS

ВАК

РИНЦ

Психология

Издатель: Высшая школа экономики

Издается с 2005 года

Периодичность: 4 выпуска в год

Доступ к электронным архивам: открытый

 

Социально-психологическая модель восприятия чужого: идентичность, знание, амбивалентность

Скарабис М., кандидат психологических наук, научный ассистент в группе професора Шефера в Университете Мюнстера, Германия
Шефер Б., PhD, профессор психологии, работает в области социальной психологии в Институте психологии IV при Вестфальском университете Вильгельма в г. Мюнстер, Германия (Westfalische Wilhelms-University), Германия
Шледер Б., социальный психолог, получил дип¬лом психолога и степень доктора философии (Ph.D.) в Бонне за диссер¬тацию последовательности теорий (consistency theories). Хабилитацию по теме ценности и изменения ценностей проходил в 1991 г., будучи асси¬стентом профессора Шефера в Университете Мюнстера. В 1991-1997 гг. был доцентом на факультете психологии Мюнстера. За¬тем читал лекции в университетах Бонна, Дортмунда, Бохума по органи¬зационной и педагогической психологии. Проводит исследования в области социальных аттитюдов, ценностей, коммуникации, личностной идентичности. В настоящее время Бернд Шлёдер разрабатывает проект реформирования обучения в Университете Бонна.

Аннотация

Восприятие чужого в современных социально-психологических исследованиях –новая тема. Основываясь на философском и социологическом подходах, Шефери Шлёдер представили модель восприятия чужого (Schäfer, Schlöder, 1994).В рамках этой концепции чужое понимается в контексте самопонимания и самоопределения (идентичности) воспринимающего человека или социальной структуры. В качестве главных компонентов идентичности рассматриваются предписывающие, то есть направляющие поведение компоненты собственного знания, которые, будучи связаны с социальными ценностями, относятся также и к потребности в признании. Предполагается, что чужое сигнализирует об отклонении от главных аспектов идентичности человека и тем самым ставит под сомнение его собственную идентичность. Из-за недостатка информации и опыта контактов с чужим человеком индивид какое-то время не может решить, как следует понимать это отклонение – как благоприятный шанс или как опасность. В результате возникает амбивалентная реакция. Наряду с этой неосведомленностью в узком смысле в данной модели рассматриваются также последующие этапы восприятия чужого, которые, однако, приводят к возникновению других по качеству реакций (безразличия или негативного и позитивного отношения).

Ссылка для цитирования

Литература
  1. Abelson, R. P. (1959). Modes of resolution of belief dilemmas. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 3, 343-352.
  2. Abelson, R. P. & Prentice, D. A. (1989). Beli­efs as possessions: A functional perspecti­ve. In A. R. Pratkanis & S. J. Breckler (Eds.), Attitude structure and function. The third Ohio State University volume on atti­tudes and persuasion (pp. 361-381). Hills-dale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  3. Aboud, F. E. (1979). Self: An identity, a con­cept, or a sense. In L. H. Strickland (Ed.), Soviet and Western Perspectives in Social Psychology (pp. 235-254). Oxford: Perga-mon.
  4. Allport, G. W. (1955). Becoming. New Ha­ven: Yale University Press.
  5. Alvarez, R. M. & Brehm, J. (1995). American ambivalence towards abortion policy: De­velopment of a heteroskedastic probit mo­del of competing values. American Journal of Political Science, 39, 1055-82.
  6. Alvarez, R. M. & Brehm, J. (1997). Are Ame­ricans ambivalent towards racial policies? American Journal of Political Science, 41, 345-374.
  7. Babad, E. Y., Birnbaum, M. & Benne, K. D. (1983). The social self. Group influences on personal identity. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  8. Baldwin, J. R. (1998). Tolerance/intolerance: A multidisciplinary view of prejudice. In M.L. Hecht (Ed.), Communicating prejudice (pp. 24-56). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  9. Bargh, J. A., Chaiken, S., Govender, R., & Pratto, F. (1992). The generality of the automatic attitude effect. Journal of Perso­nality and Social Psychology, 62, 839-912.
  10. Bar-Tal, D. (1990). Group Beliefs. A Concep­tion for Analyzing Group Structure, pro­cesses, and behavior. New York: Springer.
  11. Bar-Tal, D. (1998). Group Beliefs as an Exp­ression of Social Identity. In S. Worchel, J.F. Morales, D. Páez & J.C. Deschamps (Eds.) Social Identity. International Pers­pectives S. 93-113. London: Sage.
  12. Bar-Tal, D. & Geva, N. (1986). A cognitive basis of international conflicts. In S. G. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations. (pp. 118-133). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
  13. Bassili, J. N. (1996). Meta-judgmental versus operative indexes of psychological attribu­tes: The case of measures of attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 637-653.
  14. Baumann, Z. (1998). Moderne und Ambivalenz. In U. Bielefeld (Hrsg.), Das Eigene und das Fremde. Neuer Rassismus in der alten Welt? (S. 23-49). Hamburg: Hambur­ger Edition.
  15. Belk, R. W. (1988). Possessions and the ex­tended self. Journal of Consumer Rese­arch, 15, 139-168.
  16. Belk, R. W. (1991). The ineluctable mysteri­es of possessions. Journal of Social Behavi­or and Personality, 6, 17-55.
  17. Bell, D.W., Esses, V.M., & Maio, G.R. (1996). The utility of open-ended measures to assess intergroup ambivalence. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 28, 12-18.
  18. Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieti­es of adaption. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Accultu­ration: Theory, models and some new findings. Boulder: Westview Press.
  19. Biernat, M., Vescio, T. K. & Theno, S. A. (1996). Violating American values: A “va­lue congruence” approach to understanding outgroup attitudes. Journal of Experimen­tal Social Psychology, 32, 387-410.
  20. Bornewasser, M. (1995). Motivationale Hin-tergründe von Fremdenfeindlichkeit und Gewalt. In S. Müller, H.-U. Otto & U. Otto (Hrsg.), Fremde und Andere in Deutsch-land. Nachdenken über das Einverleiben, Einebnen, Ausgrenzen (S. 87-102). Opla-den: Leske & Budrich.
  21. Bourhis, R. Y., Moise, C. L., Perrreault, S. & Senécal, S. (1997). Immigration und Multi-kulturalismus in Kanada : Die Entwicklung eines interaktiven Akkulturationsmodels. In A. Mummendey & B. Simon (Hersg.), Identität und Verschiedenheit: Zur Sozialp-sychologie der Identität in komplexen Ge-sellschaften (S. 63-107). Bern: Huber.
  22. Braithwaite, V. A. & Law, H. G. (1985). Structure of human values: Testing the ade­quacy of the Rokeach Value Survey. Jour­nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 250-263.
  23. Breakwell, G. (1986). Coping with threate­ned identities. London: Methuen.
  24. Breckler, S. J. (1994). A comparison of nu­merical indexes for measuring attitude am­bivalence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 350-365.
  25. Brendl, C. M. & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Prin­ciples of judging valence: What makes events positive or negative? In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances In Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 95-160). New York: Academic Press.
  26. Brömer, P. (1999). Informationsverarbeitung bei ambivalenten Einstellungen. Regensburg: Roderer.
  27. Byrne, D. (1969). Attitudes and attraction. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experi­mental social psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 35-89). San Diego: Academic Press.
  28. Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Relationship between attitudes and evalua­tive space: A critical review, with emphasis on the separability of positive and negative substrates. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 401-423.
  29. Cacioppo, J. T., Gardner, W. L. & Berntson, G. G. (1997). Beyond bipolar conceptuali­zations and measures: The case of attitudes and evaluative space. Personality and Soci­al Psychology Bulletin, 1, 3-25.
  30. Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R. & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative con­duct: Recycling the concept of norms to re­duce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015-1026.
  31. Conner, M., Sherlock, K. & Orbell, S. (1998). Psychosocial determinants of ecstasy use in young people in the UK. British Journal of Health Psychology, 3, 295-317.
  32. Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Rochberg-Halton, E. (1989). Der Sinn der Dinge. München: Psychologie Verlags Union.
  33. DeRidder, R. & Tripathi, R. C. (1992) (Eds.). Norm violation and intergroup relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  34. Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and preju­dice: Their automatic and controlled com­ponents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5-18.
  35. Devine, P. G., Hamilton, D. L. & Ostrom, T. M. (Eds.) (1994). Social cognition: Impact on social psychology. San Diego: Academic Press.
  36. Eiser, J. R. (1987). The expression of attitu­des. New York: Springer.
  37. Emmons, R. A. & Kaiser, H. A. (1996). Goal orientation and emotional well-being: Lin­king goals and affect through self. In L. L. Martin & A. Tesser (Eds.), Striving and fee­ling. Interactions among goals, affect, and self-regulation (pp. 79-98). Mahwah: Law­rence Erlbaum.
  38. Esses, V. M., Haddock, G. & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Values, stereotypes, and emotions as determinants of intergroup attitudes. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Af­fect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interacti­ve processes in group perception (pp. 137-166). San Diego: Academic Press.
  39. Feather, N. T. (1984). Masculinity, feminity, psychological androgyny and the structure of values. Journal of Personality and Soci­al Psychology, 47, 604-620.
  40. Feather, N. T. (1990). Bridging the gap bet­ween values and action. Recent applicati­ons of the expectancy-value model. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition. Fo­undations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 152-192). New York: Guilford Press.
  41. Feather, N. T. (1995). Values, valences, and choice: The influence of values on the per­ceived attractiveness and choice of alterna­tives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1135-1151.
  42. Feger, H. (1978). Konflikterleben und Konf-liktverhalten. Bern: Huber.
  43. Feldman, S. (1988). Structure and consisten­cy in public opinion. American Journal of Political Science, 32, 416-440.
  44. Fiske, A. P. & Tetlock, P. E. (1997). Taboo trade-offs: Reactions to transactions that trangress the spheres of justice. Political Psychology, 18, 255-297.
  45. Gollwitzer, P. M. & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.) (1996). The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior. New York: Guilford Press.
  46. Graumann, C. F. (1997). Die Erfahrung des Fremden: Lockung und Bedrohung. In A. Mummendey & B. Simon (Hrsg.), Iden-tität und Verschiedenheit. Zur Sozialpsyc-hologie der Identität in komplexen Gesellschaften (S. 39-62). Bern: Huber.
  47. Graumann, C. F. & Willig, R. (1983). Wert, Wertung, Werthaltung. In H. Thomae (Hrsg.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Themenbereich C Theorie und Forschung, Serie 4 Motivation und Emotion, Band 1 Theorien und Formen der Motivation (S. 312-396). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  48. Greenberg, J., Solomon, S. & Pyszcynski, T. (1997). Terror management theory of self-esteem and cultural worldviews: Em­pirical assessments and conceptual refine­ments. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 61-139). New York: Academic Press.
  49. Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A. & Rosier, M. (2000). Prologue to a unified theory of atti­tudes, stereotypes, and self-concept. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition and behavior (pp. 308-330). New York: Cam­bridge University Press.
  50. Grewal, R., Mehta, R. & Kardes, F. R. (2000). The role of the social-identity function of attitudes in consumer innovativeness and opinion leadership. Journal of Economic Psychology, 21, 233-252.
  51. Gurr, T. R. (1970). Why men rebel. Princeton: University Press.
  52. Habermas, J. (1976). Zur Rekonstruktion des Historischen Materialismus (S. 63-91). Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
  53. Hahn, A. (1997). „Partizipative“ Identitäten. In H. Münkler (Hrsg.). Furcht und Faszina-tion. Facetten der Fremdheit, S. 115-158. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
  54. Harding, B. & Philips, D. (1986). Contrasting values in Western Europe. London: Mac-millan.
  55. Hare, R. M. (1972). Die Sprache der Moral. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
  56. Hass, G. R., Katz, I., Rizzo, N., Bailey, J., & Eisenstadt, D. (1991). Cross-racial apprai­sal as related to attitude ambivalence and cognitive complexity. Personality and So­cial Psychology Bulletin, 17, 83-92.
  57. Haubl, R. (2000). Be-dingte Emotionen. Über identitätsstiftende Objekt-Beziehun-gen. In H.A. Hartmann & R. Haubl (Hrsg.), Von Dingen und Menschen. Funktion und Bedeutung materieller Kultur (S. 7-36). Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.
  58. Herek, G. M. (1986). The instrumentality of attitudes: Toward a neofunctional theory. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 99-114.
  59. Herek, G. M. (1987). Can functions be mea­sured? A new perspective on the functional approach to attitudes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 285-303.
  60. Herrmann, T. (1982). Wertorientierung und Wertwandel. Eine konzeptuelle Analyse aus dem Blickwinkel der Psychologie. In H. Stachowiak & T. Ellwein (Hrsg.), Be-dürfnisse, Werte und Normen im Wandel (Bd. 2, S. 29-71). München: Fink.
  61. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequen­ces. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  62. James, W. (1890/1950). The principles of psychology. Dover: Dover Publications.
  63. Jonas, K., Brömer, P. & Diehl, M. (2000). At-titudinal ambivalence. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 11, pp. 35-74). Chichester: Wiley.
  64. Jonas, K., Diehl, M. & Brömer, P. (1997). Ef­fects of attitudinal ambivalence on infor­mation processing and attitude-intention consistency. Journal of Experimental Soci­al Psychology, 33, 190-210.
  65. Kaplan, K. (1972). On the ambivalence-in­difference problem in attitude theory and measurement: A suggested modification of the semantic differential technique. Psyc­hological Bulletin, 77, 361-372.
  66. Katz, D. (1960). The functional approach to the study of attitudes. Public Opinion Qu­arterly, 24, 163-204.
  67. Katz, I. & Hass, R. G. (1988). Racial ambiva­lence and American value conflict: Corre­lational and priming studies of dual cognitive structures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 893-905.
  68. Klopfer, F.J. & Madden, T.M. (1978). The “cannot decide” option in Thurstone-type attitude scales. Educational and Psycholo­gical Measurement, 38(2), 259-264.
  69. Klopfer, F. J. & Madden, T. M. (1980). The middlemost choice on attitude items: Am­bivalence, neutrality, or uncertainty? Per­sonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 97-101.
  70. Kluckhohn, C. (1954). Values and value-ori­entations in the theory of action. In T. Par­sons & E. A. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of action. 3rd ed. (pp. 388-433). Har­vard: University Press.
  71. Kristiansen, C. M. & Matheson, K. (1990). Value conflict, value justification, and atti­tudes toward nuclear weapons. Journal of Social Psychology,130, 665-675.
  72. Kristiansen, C. M. & Zanna, M. P. (1988). Justifying attitudes by appealing to values: A functional perspective. British Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 247-256.
  73. Kristiansen, C. M. & Zanna, M. P. (1994). The rhetorical use of values to justify social and intergroup attitudes. Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 47-65.
  74. Lantermann, E-D. (1998). Werthaltungen im Kontext. In K. C. Klauer & H. Westmeyer (Hrsg.), Psychologische Methoden und Sozi-ale Prozesse (S. 328-351). Lengerich: Papst.
  75. Lautmann, R. (1969). Wert und Norm. Beg-riffsanalysen für die Soziologie. Köln: Westdeutscher Verlag.
  76. Lea, M. & Duck, S. (1982). A model for the role of similarity of values in friendship development. British Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 301-310.
  77. Lewin, K. (1963). Feldtheorie in den Sozial-wissenschaften. Bern: Huber.
  78. Lupfer, M. B., Weeks, K. P. Doan, K. A. & Houston, D. A. (2000). Folk conceptions of fairness and unfairness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 405-428.
  79. Maio, G. R., Bell, D. W. & Esses, V. M. (1996). Ambivalence and persuasion: The processing of messages about immigrant groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 513-536.
  80. Maio, G. R., Esses, V. M. & Bell, D. B. (2000). Examining conflict between components of attitudes: Ambivalence and inconsistency are distinct constructs. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 32, 58-70.
  81. Maio, G. R. & Olson, J. M. (2000). What is a “value-expressive” attitude? In G. R. Maio & J. M. Olson (Eds.), Why we evaluate: Functions of attitudes (pp. 249-269). Mah-wah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  82. Martin, L. L. & A. Tesser, A. (Eds.) (1996). Striving and feeling. Interactions among goals, affect, and self-regulation. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  83. McGregor, I., Newby-Clark, I. R. & Zanna, M. P. (1999). “Remembering” dissonance: Simultaneous accessibility of inconsistent cognitive elements moderates epistemic discomfort. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. Mills (Eds.), Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology (pp. 325-353). Washington: APA.
  84. Mellema, A & Bassili, J. N. (1995). On the re­lationship between attitudes and values: Exploring the moderating effects of self-monitoring and self-monitoring schematicity. Personality and Social Psycholo­gy Bulletin, 21, 885-892.
  85. Michels, R. (1925). Materialien zu einer Soziologie des Fremden. In Jahrbuch für Soziologie, 1968 (Bd. 1, S. 269-319). Frankfurt a.M.: Sauer und Auvermann.
  86. Milhabet, I. & Monteil, J.M. (1995). Activés évaluatives libre: une illustration expéri-mentale du concept de double connaissan-ce et du poids évaluatif sur l’impression formeé. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 25, 52-67.
  87. Minihová, B. (1998). Problems of dilemmas solutions in the context of social norms. Studia Psychologica, 40, 352-356.
  88. Moore, M. (1973). Ambivalence in attitude measurement. Educational and Psycholo­gical Measurement, 33, 481-483.
  89. Moore, M. (1980). Validation of the Attitude Toward Any Practice scale through the use of ambivalence as a moderator variable. Educational and Psychological Measure­ment, 40, 205-208.
  90. Morris, C.W. (1956). Varieties of Human Va­lue. Chicago: University Press.
  91. Moscovici, S. (1973). Foreword. In C. Herz-lich & D. Graham (Eds.), Health and il­lness. A social psychological analysis (pp. ix-xiv). London: Academic Press.
  92. Moscovici, S. (1985). Social Influence and Conformity. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psycholo­gy, (Vol. 2, pp. 204-273). New York: Ran­dom House.
  93. Moscovici, S. (1988). Notes towards a desc­ription of Social Representations. Europe­an Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 211-250.
  94. Mullen, B., Rozell, D. & Johnson, C. (2000). Ethnophaulisms for ethnic immigrant gro­ups: Cognitive representation of ‘the mino­rity’ and ‘the foreigner.’ Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 3, 5-24.
  95. Mummendey, A. (1993). Fremde im Spiegel sozialer Vorurteile. In Ruprecht-Karls-Uni-versität Heidelberg (Hrsg.), Erfahrungen des Fremden (S. 127-138). Heidelberg: Hei-delberger Verlagsanstalt.
  96. Münkler, H. (Hrsg.) (1997). Furcht und Fas-zination. Facetten der Fremdheit. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
  97. Nassehi, A. (1995). Der Fremde als Vertra-uter. Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozi-alpsychologie, 47, 443-463.
  98. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Tel­ling more than we know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259.
  99. Nunner-Winkler, G. (1997). Zurück zu Durkheim? Geteilte Werte als Basis gesellschaf-tlichen Zusammenhalts. In W. Heitmeyer (Hrsg.), Was hält die Gesellschaft zusam-men? Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Auf dem Weg von der Konsens- zur Konfliktge-sellschaft (Bd. 2, S. 360-402). Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
  100. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J. & Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  101. Ossorio, P. G. & Davis, K. E. (1968). The self, intentionality and reaction to evaluati­ons. In C. Gordon & K. Gergen (Eds.), The self in social interaction (pp. 355-370). New York: Wiley.
  102. Park, B. (1986). A Method for Studying the Development of Impressions of Real Pe­ople. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(5), 907-917.
  103. Parsons, T. & Shills, E. A. (1954). Systems of value-orientation. In T. Parsons & E. A. Shils (Eds.), Toward a general theory of ac­tion. 3rd ed. (pp. 159-189). Harvard: Uni­versity Press.
  104. Pervin, L. A. (1989). Goal concepts in perso­nality and social psychology. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  105. Pratkanis, A.R. (1989). The cognitive repre­sentation of attitudes. In A. R. Pratkanis & S. J. Breckler (Eds.), Attitude structure and function. The third Ohio State University volume on attitudes and persuasion (pp. 71-98). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  106. Pratkanis, A. R. & Greenwald, A. G. (1989). A sociocognitive model of attitude structu­re and function. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Ad­vances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 22, pp. 245-285). San Diego: Acade­mic Press.
  107. Prentice, D. A. (1990). Familiarity and diffe­rences in self- and other-representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psycho­logy, 59, 369-383.
  108. Prentice, D. A. & Carlsmith, K. M. (2000). Opinions and personality: On the psycholo­gical functions of attitudes and other valued possessions. In G. R. Maio & J. M. Olson (Eds.), Why we evaluate: Functions of atti­tudes (pp. 223-248). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  109. Priester, J. R. & Petty, R. E. (1996). The gra­dual threshold model of ambivalence: Rela­ting the positive and negative bases of attitudes to subjective ambivalence. Jour­nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 431-449.
  110. Rettig, S. & Pasamanick, B. (1959). Changes in moral values among college students: A factorial study. American Sociological Review, 24, 856-863.
  111. Riketta, M. (2000). Discriminative validation of numerical indices of attitude ambivalence. Current Research in Social Psychology, 5(4).
  112. Rokeach, M. (1960). The open and the closed mind. New York: Basic Books.
  113. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human va­lues. New York: Free Press.
  114. Rokeach, M. (1975). Beliefs, attitudes, and values. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  115. Rokeach, M., Evans, R. I & Smith, P. W. (1960). Two kinds of prejudice or one. In M. Rokeach (Ed.), The open and the clo­sed mind (pp. 132-168). New York: Basic Books.
  116. Scarabis, M. (1997). Identitätsdiskrepanz, Potenz und die Erfahrung des Anderen. Münster: Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit.
  117. Scarabis, M. (2000). Sozial- und differential-psychologische Aspekte des Erlebens und der Verarbeitung von identitätsrelevanten Wertkonflikten. Münster: Dissertation.
  118. Scarabis, M., Bahlinghorst, N., Schulze, R. & Schäfer, B. (dieses Heft). Das Erleben von Fremdheit als Determinante subjektiver Ambivalenz
  119. Scarabis, M., Schulze, R. & Schäfer, B. (die­ses Heft). Ökonomische und symbolische Identitätsdiskrepanzen als Determinanten von Ambivalenz gegenüber Fremdgrup-pen. Universität Münster: Unveröffentlich-tes Manuskript.
  120. Schäfer, B. (1983). Semantische Differential Technik. In H. Feger & J. Bredenkamp (Hrsg.) Datenerhebung, Hogrefe, Göttin-gen, 1983, Seiten 154-221 Series: Enzyklo-paedie der Psychologie, Themenbereich B, Serie I, Band 2.
  121. Schäfer, B. (1993). Das Fremde als Heraus-forderung von Identitätsansprüchen. Ethik & Unterricht, 4, 2-8.
  122. Schäfer, B. (1998). Bedingungen der Ambi-valenz sozialer Einstellungen. In K.C. Klauer & H. Westmeyer (Hrsg.), Psycholo-gische Methoden und soziale Prozesse (S. 372-400). Lengerich: Pabst.
  123. Schäfer, B. & Schlöder, B. (1990). National-bewußtsein als Aspekt sozialer Identität. In P. Leidinger & D. Metzler (Hrsg.), Gesc-hichte und Geschichtsbewußtsein. Festsch­rift Karl-Ernst Jeismann zum 65. Geburtstag (S. 309-348). Münster: Institut für Didaktik der Geschichte.
  124. Schäfer, B. & Schlöder, B. (1994). Identität und Fremdheit. Sozialpsychologische As-pekte der Eingliederung und Ausgliede-rung des Fremden. Jahrbuch für Christliche Sozialwissenschaft, 35, 69-87.
  125. Schäffter, O. (Hrsg.) (1991). Das Fremde. Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszi-nation und Bedrohung. Opladen: Westde-utscher Verlag.
  126. Schlöder, B. (1988). Soziale Vorstellungen als Bezugspunkte von Vorurteilen. In B. Schäfer & F. Petermann (Hrsg.) Vorurteile und Einstellungen. Sozialpsychologische Beiträge zum Problem sozialer Orientie-rung (S. 66-98). Köln: Deutscher Insti-tuts-Verlag.
  127. Schlöder, B. (1993). Soziale Werte und Wert-haltungen. Eine sozialpsychologische Un-tersuchung des Konzepts sozialer Werte und des Wertewandels. Opladen: Leske & Budrich.
  128. Schlöder, B. (1995). Outlines of a social psychological conception of valuation. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 54, 173-185.
  129. Schuster, M. (1996). Ethnische Fremdheit, ethnische Identität. In M. Schuster (Hrsg.), Die Begegnung mit dem Fremden. Wertun-gen und Wirkungen in Hochkulturen vom Altertum bis zur Gegenwart. Colloquium Rauricum (Bd. 4, S. 207-221). Stuttgart: Teubner.
  130. Schütz, A. (1944/1972). Der Fremde. Ein so-zialpsychologischer Versuch. In A. Bro-dersen (Hrsg.), Alfred Schütz: Gesammelte Aufsätze (Bd. 2, S. 53-69). Den Haag: Mar-tinus Nijhoff.
  131. Schwartz, S. H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior: applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 8, pp. 1-24). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  132. Schwartz, S. H. & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a universal psychological structure of hu­man values. Journal of Personality and So­cial Psychology, 53, 550-562.
  133. Scott, W. A. (1966). Measures of cognitive structure. Multivariate Behavioral Rese­arch, 1, 391-395.
  134. Sherif, M. (1963). The psychology of social norms. New York: Harper Row.
  135. Sherif, M. & Cantril, H. (1947). The psycholo­gy of ego-involvements. New York: Wiley.
  136. Simmel, G. (1908). Soziologie. Untersuchun-gen über die Formen der Vergesellschaf-tung, S. 685-691. Leipzig.
  137. Smith, M.B., Bruner, J.S. & White, R.W. (1956). Opinions and personality. New York: Wiley.
  138. Snyder, M. & DeBono, K. G. (1989). Unders­tanding the functions of attitudes: Lessons from personality and social behavior. In A. R. Pratkanis & S. J. Breckler (Eds.), Attitude structure and function. The third Ohio State University volume on attitudes and persuasion (pp. 339-359). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  139. Sparks, P., Hedderley, D. & Shepherd, R. (1992). An investigation into the relations­hip between perceived control, attitude va­riability and the consumption of two common foods. European Journal of Soci­al Psychology, 22, 55-71.
  140. Stephan, W.G. & Stephan, C.W. (1985). In-tergroup Anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41(3), 157-175.
  141. Strack, F. (1988). Social Cognition: Sozialp-sychologie innerhalb des Paradigmas der Informationsverarbeitung. Psychologische Rundschau, 39, 72-82.
  142. Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1986). The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behaviour. In S. G. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psyc­hology of Intergroup Relations. (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
  143. Tetlock, P. E. (1986). A value pluralism mo­del of ideological reasoning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 819-827.
  144. Tetlock, P. E., Peterson, R. S. & Lerner, J. S. (1996). Revising the value pluralism mo­del: Incorporating social content and con­text postulates. In C. Seligman, J. M. Olson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The psycho­logy of values: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 8, pp. 25-51). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  145. Thomas, A. (1993a). Psychologie interkultu-rellen Lernens und Handelns. In A. Thomas (Hrsg.), Kulturvergleichende Psychologie. Eine Einführung (S. 377-424). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  146. Thomas, A. (1993b). Fremdheitskonzepte in der Psychologie als Grundlage der Austa-uschforschung und der interkulturellen Managerausbildung. In A. Wierlacher (Hrsg.), Kulturthema Fremdheit: Leitbeg-riffe und Problemfelder kulturwissenschaf-tlicher Fremdheitsforschung (S. 257-281). München: Iudicium.
  147. Thomas, A. (1996). Analyse der Handlungs-wirksamkeit von Kulturstandards. In A. Thomas (Hrsg.), Psychologie inter-kulturellen Handelns (S. 107-135). Göttin-gen: Hogrefe.
  148. Thompson, M. M., Zanna, M. P. & Griffin, D.W. (1995). Let’s not be indifferent about (attitudinal) ambivalence. In R. E. Petty & J.A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude Strength: An­tecedents and consequences (pp. 361-386). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  149. Tourangeau, R., Rasinski, K. A. & D’Andra-de, R. (1991). Attitude structure and belief accessibility. Journal of Experimental So­cial Psychology, 27, 48-75.
  150. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press.
  151. Turner, R.H. (1968). The self-conception in social interaction. In C. Gordon & K. Ger-gen (Eds.), The self in social interaction (pp. 93-106). New York: Wiley.
  152. Vallacher, R. R., Nowak, A. & Kaufman, J. (1994). Intrinsic dynamics of social judg­ment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 20-34.
  153. Van Dijk, T. A. (1987). Communicating Ra­cism. Ethnic Prejudice in Thought and Talk. Newbury Park: Sage.
  154. Wenzlaff, R. M. & Wegner, D. M. (2000). Thought Suppression. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 59-91.
  155. Wicklund, R. A. & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1985). Symbolische Selbstergänzung. In D. Frey & M. Irle (Hrsg.), Theorien der Sozialpsyc-hologie. Band 3: Motivations- und Infor-mationsverarbeitungstheorien (S. 31-55). Bern: Huber.
  156. Wierlacher, A. (Hrsg.) (1993). Kulturthema Fremdheit. Leitbegriffe und Problemfelder kulturwissenschaftlicher Fremdheitsforsc-hung. München: Iudicium.
  157. Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., & Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes. Psycho­logical Review, 107, 101-126.
  158. Wood, W. (2000). Attitude Change: Persua­sion and Social Influence. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 539-570.
  159. Zaller, J. & Feldman, S. (1992). A simple theo­ry of the survey response: Answering questi­ons versus revealing preferences. American Journal of Political Science, 36, 579-616.
 
О проекте PsyJournals.ruЛауреат XIV национального психологического конкурса «Золотая Психея» по итогам 2012 года

© 1997–2019 Портал психологических изданий PsyJournals.ru  Все права защищены

Свидетельство регистрации СМИ Эл № ФС77-66447 от 14 июля 2016 г.

Издатель: ФГБОУ ВО МГППУ

Creative Commons License

Лауреат XIV национального психологического конкурса «Золотая Психея» по итогам 2012 года

Яндекс.Метрика