This article decribes the specifics of using computers and computer programs in developmental work with children of preschool age. The concept of a computer game and the activity mediated by the computer is discussed. We present analysis of modern computer programs for preschool children, including shortcomings and risks of the usage of entertainment programs. Design stages of the computer program from the point of view of activity approach are introduced. Two types of developmental computer programs are appointed: closed and open type. Advantages of programs of open (creative) type are shown. The contents of a uniquely designed computer program of open (creative) type are described, with indication of the principles that methodology of the lessons is based upon. Finally, we present the results of a formative experiment, which showed that the developmental computer program and the suggested methodology of lessons promote development of certain components of systemic thinking, general integral indicator of systematic, as well as flexibility of thinking and imagination of senior preschool children.
Nowadays modern preschool education faces the tasks related to active and
effective use of new technologies in education and developmental work with
children. Preschool education in this context demands a special approach to the
contents, methods and forms of work with children. New computer technologies
cannot be mechanically transferred to the educational environment of a
kindergarten. Special research is necessary to provide scientific ground for
introduction of the computer technologies into this primary and in many
respects key stage of education.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1966): Igra i eye rol’ v psykhicheskom razvitii
rebenka [Play and its role in children’s mental development]. In: Voprosy
Psykhologii, 6, 62-68. Gorovitz, Yu.M.; Chainova, L.D.; Poddiyakov, N.N. et al.
(1998): Noviye informatsionniye tekhnologii v doshkol’nom obrazovanii [New
digital technologies in preschool education]. Moscow.
Davydov, V.V.; Rubtsov, V.V.; Kritskiy A.G. (1996):
Psikhologicheskiye osnovy organizatsii uchebnoy deyatel’nosti,
oposredstvovannoy ispol’zovaniyem compyuternykh sistem [Psychological basis of
organizing learning activity mediated by use of computer systems]. In:
Psychologicheskaya nauka i obrazovaniye, 2, 68–72.
Korkina, A.Yu. (2010a): Vliyaniye computernikh programm na
razvitiye poznavatel’nykh sposobnostey detey starshego doshkol’nogo vozrasta
[Influence of computer programs on development of cognitive abilities in
senior preschool age children]. In: Nachal’naya shkola plus do i posle, 1,
Korkina, A.Yu. (2010b): Psykhologo-pedagogicheskiy podkhod k
proyektirovaniyu computernykh razvivayushikh programm dlya starshikh
doshkol’nikov [Psychological and pedagogical approach to design of
developmental computer programs for senior preschool children]. PhD thesis:
Novoselova, S.L.; Petku, G.P. (1997): Computerniy mir doshkol’nika
[A preschooler’s digital world]. Moscow.
Obukhova, L.F. (1998): Detskaya Psihologiya [Child Psychology].
Polivanova, N.V.; Rivina, I.V. (1996): Diagnostika sistemnogo
mishleniya detey 6-9 let. In: Psihologicheskay nauka I obrazovaniye, 1,
Rubtsov, V.V.; Lazarev, V.S.; Lvovsky, V.A.; Medvedev, A.M.; Yermekov,
N. (1991): Noviye informatsionniye tekhnologii obucheniya –
deyatel’nostniy podkhod k proyektirovaniyu [New digital technologies in
teaching-learning – activity approach to their design]. In: Narodnoye
obrazovaniye, 10, 65
Elkonin, D.B. (1999): Psychologiya igry [Psychology of