Previous issue (2020. Vol. 13, no. 1)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
The characteristics of eye movements in patients with anxiety disorders during recognition of emotions in facial expressions 1353
Associated Professor, Chair of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Chemistry and Biology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Head of the Chair of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Chemistry and Biology, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Most studies of visual attention in recognizing facial expressions of patients with anxiety disorders are aimed at assessing the differences with simultaneous presentation of “threatening” and “non-threatening” incentives. Thisstudyaimedtotestthehypothesisthatthepathologicalanxietyarethespecificcharacteristics of eye movements for recognition separately placed on facial expressions. Study sample consisted of 23 subjects: the control group (n = 14), mean age 26,5 ± 5,4 years, and the experimental group (n = 9) – patients with anxiety disorders, mean age 31 ± 3.64 years. Eye movements were recorded using eyrtracker RED-m (SMI). Subjects were sequentially exposed to 18 pictures from the FACS database: emotions related (anger, fear, disgust) and unrelated (surprise, joy, sadness) to threat. Deficit in the recognition of facial expressions was found in pathological anxiety group. Recognition accuracy of “fear” emotion in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control group (p <0,01). Eyetracking results suggest that pathological anxiety affects the recognition of facial expressions, so that highly informative lower face less attention than normal, as the eye area and nose are observed longer compared with healthy subjects. We discuss the possible adaptive significance of the identified characteristics of eye movements.
Footnote. The results of this study were presented at the Seventh International Conference on Cognitive Science (Svetlogorsk, June 2016).
- Adolphs R. Fear, faces, and the human amygdala. Current Opinion in
Neurobiology, 2008, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 166–172.
- Barabanshchikov V.A., Anan’eva K.I., Kharitonov V.N. Organizatsiya
dvizhenii glaz pri vospriyatii izobrazhenii litsa [The organization of eye
movements in the perception of facial images]. Eksperimental’naya
psikhologiya [Experimental Psychology (Russia)], 2009, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.
31–60 (In Russian; abstract in English).
- Barabanshchikov V.A. Ekspressii litsa i ikh vospriyatie [The facial
expressions and their perceptions]. Moscow, Institut psikhologii RAN Publ.,
2012. 341 p. (In Russian).
- Beck A.T, Clark D.A. An information processing model of anxiety: Automatic
and strategic processes. Behaviour Research And Therapy, 1997, vol. 35,
no. 1, pp. 49–58.
- Bell С., Bourke C., Colhoun H., Carter F., Frampton C., Porter R. The
misclassification of facial expressions in generalised social phobia.
Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2011, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 278–283.
- Van den Bulk B., Meens P., van Lang N., de Voogd E., van der Wee N.,
Rombouts S. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents
with affective disorder s: the role of underlying depression and anxiety
symptoms. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2014, vol. 8, pp. 1–13.
- Cangöz B. Examining the Visual Screening Patterns of Emotional Facial
Expressions with Gender, Age and Lateralization. Journal of Eye Movement
Research, 2013, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1–15.
- Cooper R., Rowe A., Penton-Voak I. The role of trait anxiety in the
recognition of emotional facial expressions. Journal of Anxiety
Disorders, 2008, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1120–1127.
- Demenescu L., Kortekaas R., Cremers H., Renken R., van Tol M., van der Wee
N. Amygdala activation and its function al connectivity during perception of
emotional faces in social phobia and panic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric
Research, 2013, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1024–1031.
- Ekman P., Friesen W.V. Pictures of Facial Affect. Palo Alto
California, Consult. Psychol. Press, 1976. 250 p.
- Garner M., Baldwin D., Bradley B., Mogg K. Impaired identification of
fearful faces in Generalised Social Phobia.Journal of Affective
Disorders, 2009, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 460–465.
- Mandal M. Pandey R. Prasad A. Facial expressions of emotion and
schizopfrenia: a review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2003, no. 24, pp.
- McClure E.B., Pope K., Hoberman A.J., Pine D.S., Leibenluft E. Facial
expression recognition in adolescents with mood and anxiety disorders.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003, vol. 160, pp. 1172–1174.
- Mikhailova E.S. Neirobiologicheskie osnovy opoznaniya chelovekom emotsii po
litsevoi ekspressii [Neurobiological basis of human recognition of facial
emotion]. Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deyatel’nosti im I.P. Pavlova
[I.P. Pavlov Journal of Higher Nervous Activity (Russia)], 2005,
vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 15–28 (In Russian; abstract in English).
- Mogg K., Millar N, Bradley B.P. Biases in eye movements to threatening
facial expressions in generalized anxiety disorder and depressive disorder.
Journal Abnormal Psychology, 2000, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 695–704.
- Rinck M., Becker E.S. Spider fearful individuals attend to threat, then
quickly avoid it: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology, 2006, vol. 115, pp. 231–238.
- Spezio M.L, Adolphs R., Hurley R.S., Piven J. Abnormal use of facial
information in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and
Developmental Disorders, 2007, vol. 37, pp. 929–939.
- Vassallo S., Cooper S., Douglas J. Visual scanning in the recognition of
facial affect: Is there an observer sex difference? Journal of Vision,
2009, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 11–11.
- Wang S.M., Kim Y., Yeon B., Lee H., Kweon Y., Lee C., Lee K. Symptom
severity of panic disorder associated with impairment in emotion processing of
threat-related facial expressions. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 2013, vol.
67, no. 4, pp. 245–552.