Bulling as a group phenomenon: results of “bulling” studies in Finland and Scandinavian countries over the past 20 years (1994-2014) 5210
The latest psycho-pedagogical define bullying as a “group process”, and recommend interventions against bullying to be targeted at the peer-group level rather than at individual bullies and victims. Yet, it hasn’t been clarified so far what in the group level should be changed and how. This paper reviews the literature by Finnish, Danish and Sweden scholar on the group involvement in bullying, including insight into the individuals' motives for participation in bullying and the adjustment of victims across different peer contexts. Interventions targeting the peer group are briefly discussed and future directions for research on peer processes in bullying are suggested.
Keywords: bullying, victimization, participant roles, peer group, classroom context
Column: Educational psychology
- “I'm O.K. but you're not” and other peer-relational schemas. Explaining
individual differences in children's social goals. C. Salmivalli, [et al].
Developmental Psychology, 2005. Vol. 41, no. 2. pp. 363–375.
- Alsaker F., Nägele C. Bullying in kindergarten and prevention.
Understanding and addressing bullying: An international Perspective PrevNet
publication series. D. Pepler, W. Craig, 2008. Vol. 1, pp. 230248.
- An empirical test of bullies' status goals: Assessing direct goals,
aggression, and prestige. J. Sitsema, [et al.]. AggressiveBehavior, 2009. Vol.
35, issue 1, pp. 57–67. doi: 10.1002/ab.20282.
- Andreou E., Metallidou P. The relationship of academic and social cognition
to behaviour in bullying situations among Greek primary school children.
Educational Psychology, 2004. No. 24, pp. 27–41.
- Behavior in School-Aged Children Bullying Analyses Working Group.
Cross-national consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and
psychosocial adjustment. T.R. Nansel, [et al.]. Archives of Pediatrics
& Adolescent Medicine, 2004. 158, pp. 730–736.
- Björkqvist K., Ekman K., Lagerspetz K. Bullies and victims: their ego
picture, ideal ego picture, and normative ego picture. Scandinavian Journal of
Psychology, 1982. Vol. 23, pp. 307–313. doi:
- Boulton M., Bucci E., Hawker D. Swedish and English secondary school
pupils' attitudes towards, and conceptions of, bullying: Concurrent links with
bully/victim involvement. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1999. Vol. 40,
no. 4, pp. 277–284. doi: 10.1111/1467-9450.404127.
- Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: A comparison of bullies,
victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents / R. Veenstra, [et al.].
Developmental Psychology, 2005. Vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 672–682.
- Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to
social status within the group / C. Salmivalli, [et al.]. Aggressive Behavior,
1996. Vol. 22, pp. 1–15.
- Bullying at school—An indicator of adolescents at risk for mental disorders
/ Kaltiala-Heino, R., [et al.]. Journal of Adolescence, 2000. Vol. 23, issue 6,
pp. 661–674. doi:10.1006/jado.2000.0351
- Camodeca M., Goossens F. A. Children's opinions on effective strategies to
cope with bullying: The importance of bullying role and perspective.
Educational Research, 2005. Vol. 47, pp. 93–105.
- Card N., Hodges E.V.E. Shared targets of aggression by early adolescent
friends. Developmental Psychology, 2006. Vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1327–1338. doi:
- Craig W., Harel Y. Bullying, physical fighting, and victimization. Young
people's health in context: International report from the HBSC 2001/02
survey.WHO Policy Series: Health policy for children and adolescents. C.
Currie. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2004. Issue 4.
- Dijkstra J.K., Lindenberg S., Veenstra R. Beyond the class norm:
Bullyingbehavior of popular adolescents and its relation to peer acceptance and
rejection. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2008. Vol. 36, no. 8, pp.
- Do bystanders influence the frequency of bullying in a classroom? Kärnä,
A., [et al.] The XIth EARA conference, Turin, Italy, 2008.
- Dodge K. The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression,
The development and treatment of childhood aggression, D. Pepler, K. Rubin.
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991. P. 201–218.
- Erath S., Flanagan K., Bierman K. Early adolescent school adjustment:
Associations with friendship and peer victimization. Social Development, 2008.
Vol. 17, pp. 853–870.
- Espelage D., Holt M., Henkel R. Examination of peer-group contextual
effects on aggression during early adolescence. Child Development, 2003. Vol.
74, no. 1, pp. 205–220. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00531.
- Garandeau C., Cillessen A. From indirect aggression to invisible
aggression: A conceptual view on bullying and peer group manipulation.
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2006. Vol.11, no. 6, pp. 641–654. doi:
- Goossens F.A., Olthof T., Dekker P.H. New participant role scales:
Comparison between various criteria for assigning roles and indications for
their validity, Aggressive Behavior, 2006. No. 32, pp. 343–357.
- Graham S., Juvonen J. An attributional approach to peer victimization. Peer
harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. J. Juvonen,
S. Graham. New York: Guilford Press, 2001. P. 49–72.
- Granic, I., Dishion, T. Deviant talk in adolescent friendships: A step
toward measuring a pathogenic attractor process. Social Development, 2003. Vol.
12, no. 3, pp. 314–334. doi: 10.1111/1467-9507.00236.
- Hawker D., Boulton M. Subtypes of peer harassment and their correlates. J.
Juvonen, S. Graham, ed., Peer harassment in school: The plight of the
vulnerable and the victimized. New York: Guilford Press. 2001. P. 378–397.
- Hawkins D.L., Pepler D.J., Craig W.M. Naturalistic observations of peer
interventions in bullying. Social Development, 2001. Vol. 10, issue 4, pp.
512–527. doi: 10.1111/1467-9507.00178.
- Hawley P. Social dominance and prosocial and coercive strategies of
resource control in preschoolers. International Journal of Behavioral
Development, 2002. Vol. 26, pp. 167–176. doi: 10.1080/01650250042000726.
- Hawley P., Little T., Card N. The allure of a mean friend: Relationship
quality and processes of aggressive adolescents with prosocial skills.
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2007. Vol. 31, no. 2, pp.
- Hodges E.V.E., Perry D.G. Personal and interpersonal antecedents and
consequences of victimization by peers. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 1999. Vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 677–685.
- Isaacs J., Hodges E., Salmivalli C. Long-term consequences of
victimization: A follow-up from adolescence to young adulthood. European
Journal of Developmental Science, 2008. Vol. 2. no. 4, pp. 387–397.
- Juvonen J., Galvan A. Peer influence in involuntary social groups: Lessons
from research on bullying. Peer influence processes among youth. M. Prinstein,
K. Dodge, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2008. P. 225–244.
- Juvonen J., Graham S., Schuster B. Bullying among young adolescents: The
strong, weak, and troubled. Pediatrics, 2003. Vol. 112, no. 6, pp.
- Juvonen J., Ho A. Social motives underlying disruptive behavior across
middle grades. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2008 Vol. 37, issue 6, pp.
747–756. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9272-0.
- Juvonen J., Ho A.Y. Social motives underlying antisocial behavior across
middle school grades. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2009. Vol. 37, issue 6,
p. 747-756. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9272-0. doi:
- Keltner D., Gruenfeld D.H., Anderson C. Power, approach, and inhibition.
Psychological Review, 2003. Vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 265–284.
- LaFontana K., Cillessen A. Developmental сhanges in the priority of
perceived status in childhood and adolescence. Social Development, 2009. Vol.
19, issue 1, pp. 130-147. doi:10.1111/j. 1467-9507.2008.00522.x.
- Nielsen M., Matthiesen S., Einarsen S. Sense of coherence as a protective
mechanism among targets of workplace bullying. Journal of Occupational Health
Psychology, 2008. Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 128–136.
- Nishina A., Juvonen J. Daily reports of witnessing and experiencing peer
harassment in middle school. Child Development. 2005. Vol. 76, issue 2. P.
435–450. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00855.x.
- Norah R Collins (2014). Bullying - Stop the Cycle - Childhood and Adult
Bullying: A comprehensive guide of proven strategies and techniques,March 7,
- O'Connell P., Pepler D., Craig W. Peer involvement in bullying: Insights
and challenges for intervention. Journal of Adolescence, 1999. Vol. 22, issue
4, pp. 437–452. doi:10.1006/jado.1999.0238.
- Olthof T., Goossens F. Bullying and the need to belong: Early adolescents'
bullying-related behavior and the acceptance they desire and receive from
particular classmates. Social Development, 2008. Vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 24–46.
- Olweus D. Bullying at school: Long-term outcomes for the victims and an
effective school-based intervention program. Aggressive behavior: Current
perspectives. L.R. Huesmann, Ed. New York: Plenum Press, 1994. P. 97–130.
- Olweus D. Peer harassment: A critical analysis and some important issues.
Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. J.
Juvonen, S. Graham, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2001.
- Ostvik K., Rudmin F. Bullying and hazing among Norwegian army soldiers:Two
studies of prevalence, context, and cognition. Military Psychology, 2001. Vol.
13, no. 1, pp 17–39. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327876MP1301_02.
- Peer group affiliation of children: The role of perceived popularity,
likeability, and behavioral similarity in bullying / M. Witvliet, [et al.].
Social Development, 2009. Vol. 19, issue 2, pp. 285-303.
- Pellegrini A.D., Long J.D. A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and
victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary
school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2002. Vol. 20, pp.
- Person-group dissimilarity in involvement in bullying and its' relation
with social status / M. Sentse, [et al.]. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
2007. Vol. 35, issue 6, pp. 1009–1019. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9150-3.
- Physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying among German students:
Age trends, gender differences, and correlates. H. Scheithauert, [et al.].
Aggressive Behavior. 2006. Vol. 32, issue 3, pp. 261–275. doi:
- Pöyhönen V., Juvonen J., Salmivalli C. What does it take to stand up for
the victim of bullying? The interplay between personal and social factors.
Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 2010. Vol 56, issue 2, pp. 143-163. doi:
- Pöyhönen V., Kärnä A., Salmivalli C. Classroom-level moderators of the
empathy-defending link. The 20th Biennial ISSBD Meeting. Würzburg, Germany,
- Rivers I., Smith P.K.. Types of bullying behaviour and their correlates.
Aggressive Behavior, 1994. Vol. 20, pp. 359–368.
- Roland E., Idsoe T. Aggression and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 2001.
Vol. 27, issue 6, pp .446–462. doi: 10.1002/ab.1029.
- Salmivalli C. Aggression and Violent Behavior 15. 2010. P. 112–120.
- Salmivalli C., Huttunen A., Lagerspetz K. Peer networks and bullying in
schools. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1997. Vol. 38, issue 4, p.
305–312. doi: 10.1111/1467-9450.00040.
- Salmivalli C., Isaacs J. Prospective relations among victimization,
rejection, friendlessness, and children's self- and peer-perceptions. Child
Development, 2005. Vol. 76, issue 6, p. 1161–1171. doi:
- Salmivalli C., Kärnä A., Poskiparta E. Development, evaluation, and
diffusion of a national anti-bullying program (KiVa). Handbook of youth
prevention science. B. Doll, W. Pfohl, J. Yoon, ed. New York: Routledge,
- Salmivalli C., Lappalainen M., Lagerspetz K. Stability and change of
behavior in connection with bullying in schools: A two-year follow-up.
Aggressive Behavior, 1998. Vol. 24, issue 3, pp. 205–218. doi:
- Salmivalli C., Nieminen E. Proactive and reactive aggression among school
bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Aggressive Behavior, 2002. Vol. 28, issue
1, pp. 30–44. doi: 10.1002/ab.90004.
- Salmivalli C., Peets K. Bullies, victims, and bully–victim relationships.
Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups. K. Rubin, W.
Bukowski, B. Laursen, Ed., New York: Guilford Press, 2008. P. 322–340.
- Salmivalli C., Voeten M. Connections between attitudes, group norms, and
behaviors associated with bullying in schools. International Journal of
Behavioral Development. 2004. Vol. 28. issue 3, pp. 246–258. doi:
- Schuster, B. Rejection and victimization by peers: Social perception and
social behavior mechanisms. Peer harassment in school: The plight of the
vulnerable and victimized. J. Juvonen, S. Graham, ed. New York: Guilford Press,
2001. P. 290–309.
- Social status and aggressive and disruptive behaviors in girls: Individual,
group, and classroom differences. / Estell D., [et al.]. Journal of School
Psychology, 2008. Vol. 46, issue 2, pp. 193–212. doi:
- Social-cognitive and behavioral correlates of aggression and victimization
in boys' play groups / D. Schwartz, [et al.]. Journal of Abnormal Child
Psychology, 1998. Vol. 26, issue 6, pp. 431–440. doi:
- South C., Wood J. Bullying in prisons: The importance of perceived social
status, prisonization, and moral disengagement. Aggressive Behavior, 2006. Vol.
32, issue 5, pp. 490–501. doi: 10.1002/ab.20149.
- Teräsahjo T., Salmivalli C. “She is not actually bullied”. The discourse of
harassment in student groups. Aggressive Behavior, 2003. Vol. 29, issue 2, pp.
134–154. doi: 10.1002/ab.10045.
- The impact of bystanding to workplace bullying on symptoms of depression
among women and men in industry in Sweden. Jensen I.B., [et al.]. International
Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (Springer Berlin Heidelberg),
2013. Vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 709–716. doi: 10.1007/s00420-012-0813-1.
- The power of friendship: Protection against an escalating cycle of peer
victimization / Hodges E.V.E., [et al.]. Developmental Psychology, 1999. Vol.
35, no. 1, pp. 94–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199.
- The role of bystanders in students' perception of bullying and sense of
safety. / Gini G., [et al.]. Journal of School Psychology, 2008. Vol. 46, no.
6, pp. 617–638. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsp.2008.02.001.
- They're cool: Social status and peer group supports for aggressive boys and
girls / P. Rodkin, [et al.]. Social Development, 2006. Vol. 15, pp. 175–204.
- Turner, J.C. Social influence. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing
Co. 1991. 206 p.
- Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts: Bystanders’ Behaviors
Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization / Kärnä, A., [et al.].
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2010. Vol 56, no. 3, pp. 261-282. doi:
- Warden D., MacKinnon S. Prosocial children, bullies and victims: An
investigation of their sociometric status, empathy and social problem-solving
strategies. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2003. Vol. 21, issue
3, pp. 367–385. do: 10.1348/026151003322277757.