Parents and Adult Children: Special Features of Relationships (following foreign sources) 4014
postgraduate student of the developmental psychology chair by L.F. Obukhova, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia
PhD in Psychology, head of the chair of developmental psychology by L.F. Obukhova, faculty of educational psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia
Traditionally scientific literature presents many investigations on relationship between parents and children of age from a newborn child to a teenager. This paper presents an overview of foreign literature on the relationship between parents and children in the period of their transition into adulthood. First, attention is paid to the importance of these relations and to some peculiarities of the period of children becoming adults and separating from parents. Some approaches and models used to describe the relationship of parents and adult children are considered; the factors that determine the differences in relations between children and their parents at the period indicated, as well as various typologies of these relationships, are analized. Some patterns of child-parent relationships during this period of family development are described. The methodological features of conducting research on child-parent interactions are indicated. The conclusions made on the ground of this literature review may be helpful when carrying out scientific investigation or during family counseling practice.
- Kuz'mishina T.L. et al. Stili semeinogo vospitaniya: otechestvennaya i
zarubezhnaya klassifikatsiya [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya
psikhologiya, 2014, no. 1, pp. 16–25. Available at:
24.07.2017). (In Russ., Abstr. in Engl.).
- Schwarz B. et al. Adult parent-child relationship: Relationship quality,
support, and reciprocity. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 2005.
Vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 396–417.
- Arnett J.J. Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens
through the twenties. American Psychologist, 2000. Vol. 55, no. 5,
pp. 469–480. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469
- Ali S., Khaleque A., Rohner R.P. Pancultural. Gender Differences in the
Relation Between Perceived Parental Acceptance and Psychological Adjustment of
Children and Adult Offspring: A Meta-Analytic Review of Worldwide Research.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2015. Vol. 46, no. 8,
pp. 1059–1080. doi:0.1177/0022022115597754
- Bouchard G. How Do Parents React When Their Children Leave Home? An
Integrative Review. Journal of Adult Development, 2014. Vol. 21,
no. 2, pp. 69–79. doi: 10.1007/s10804-013-9180-8
- Bouchard G., Doucet D. Parental divorce and couples’ adjustment during the
transition to parenthood: The role of parent–adult child relationships. Journal
of Family Issues, 2011. Vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 507–527.
- Copeland C.J. Do parents matter? Parental attachment and its effect on
becoming independent in emerging adulthood [Elektronnyi resurs]: Dissertation.
Ann Arbor: Portland State University, 2010. 66 p. Available at:
- Hill P.L., Burrow A.L., Sumner R. Sense of purpose and parent–child
relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 2016. Vol. 4,
no. 6, pp. 436–439. doi:10.1177/2167696816640134
- Howell A.J. All in the family: Residential outcomes and family proximity:
Dissertation [Elektronnyi resurs]. University of Cincinnati, 2014. 125 p.
Available at: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1415283636
- Koepke S., Denissen J.J.A. Dynamics of identity development and
separation-individuation in parent–child relationships during adolescence and
emerging adulthood – A conceptual integration. Developmental Review, 2012.
Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 67–88. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.01.001
- Kretschmer T., Vollebergh W., Oldehinkel A.J. Parent–child positivity and
romantic relationships in emerging adulthood: Congruence, compensation, and the
role of social skills. Behavioral Development, 2017. Vol. 41, no. 2,
pp. 198–210. doi:10.1177/0165025415612228.
- Kuhar M., Reiter H. Leaving home in Slovenia: A quantitative exploration of
residential independence among young adults. Journal of Adolescence, 2014.
Vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1409–1419.
- La Valley A.G., Guerrero L.K. Perceptions of conflict behavior and
relational satisfaction in adult parent–child relationships: A dyadic analysis
from an attachment perspective. Communication Research, 2012. Vol. 39,
no. 1, pp. 48–78. doi:10.1177/0093650210391655.
- Luetzelberger T. Independence or interdependence. Norms of leaving home in
Italy and Germany. European Societies, 2012. Vol. 1, no. 1,
pp. 1–20. doi:10.1080/14616696.2012.717634.
- Matejevic M., Todorovic J., Jovanovic D. Patterns of Family Functioning and
Dimensions of Parenting Style. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2014.
Vol. 141, pp. 431–437. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.075.
- Hoeve M. et al. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: Unique and combined
links to adolescent and early adult delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 2011.
Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 813–827.
- Mendonça M., Fontaine A.M. Late nest leaving in Portugal its effect on
individuation and parent-child relationships. Emerging Adulthood, 2013.
Vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 233–244. doi:10.1177/2167696813481773.
- Moreno A. The transition to adulthood in Spain in comparative perspective:
the incidence of structural factors. Young, 2012. Vol. 20, no. 1,
pp. 19–48. doi:10.1177/110330881102000102
- Nomaguchi K.M. Parenthood and psychological well-being: Clarifying the role
of child age and parent–child relationship quality. Social Science Research,
2012. Vol. 41, no. 2. P. 489–498.
- Popov L.M., Ilesanmi R.A. Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and
Outcome. Review of European Studies, 2015. Vol. 7, no. 5,
pp. 253–263. doi:10.5539/res.v7n5p253
- Shapiro A. Revisiting the generation gap: exploring the relationships of
parent/child dyads [Elektronnyi resurs]. International journal of Aging and
Human Development, 2004. Vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 127–146. Available
- Stey P.C., Hill P.L., Lapsley D. Factor structure and psychometric
properties of a brief measure of dysfunctional individuation. Assessment, 2014.
Vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 452–462. doi:10.1177/1073191113517261.
- Tanis M., van der Louw M., Buijzen M. From empty nest to Social Networking
Site: What happens in cyberspace when children are launched from the parental
home? Computers in Human Behavior, 2016. Vol. 68, pp. 56–63.
- Tinajero A.T. Effective parental parenting among Hispanics: a quantitative
analysis of parenting styles: [Elektronnyi resurs]. Dissertation. Ann Arbor:
Capella University, 2015. 94 p. Available at:
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1711754340 (Accessed 26.05.2017).
- Zupancic M., Komidar L., Levpuscek M.P. Individuation in Slovene emerging
adults: Its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved
criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction. Journal of Adolescence, 2014.
Vol. 37, pp. 1421–1433. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.03.014.