Reasons for Reduced Learning Motivation in Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 597
PhD in Biology, associate professor of the department of General and Clinical Psychology, Privolzhsky Research Medical University (FSBEI HE PRMU) MOH Russia, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia
The article discusses the study of the relationship of ADHD in children and adults with their learning motivation at the neurological and behavioral levels. On the basis of the results of research presented in modern foreign literature, two categories of reasons for the decline in learning motivation among students with ADHD are identified: external and internal. The purpose of this article is to emphasize that the system of motivation in patients with ADHD has deeper impairments than is commonly believed due to neurological disorders of the brain, as well as complex social problems, and present these results as an explanation of motivational and educational problems faced by students with ADHD. The article also presents possible directions for coordinating the reasons for the decline in academic motivation in ADHD and psychological theories of its formation (SDT, AGT and SCT). The possibilities of applying these theories for psychological and pedagogical solutions to the problems of motivation among students with ADHD are shown. The results of the analysis of the reviewed scientific papers indicate the need for a comprehensive account of the factors that reduce motivation in developing a system of recommendations for students with ADHD – for organizing their learning environment and planning the individual trajectory of their development.
Keywords: training motivation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, ADD, motivation disorders in ADHD, behavior, training, educational success, control functions, prefrontal cortex, dopamine
Column: Educational psychology
- Taylor S.F. et al. A functional neuroimaging study of motivation and
executive function. Neuroimage, 2004, vol. 21, no. 3,
pp. 1045–1054. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.10.032
- Furukawa E. et al. Abnormal striatal BOLD responses to reward anticipation
and rewarddelivery in ADHD [Elektronnyi resurs]. PLOS One, 2014, vol. 9,
no. 2, e89129. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089129
- Retz-Junginger P. et al. ADHD: Burden of Disease According to Subtypes in
Adult Patients. Psychiatrische Praxis, 2016, vol. 43, no. 5,
pp. 279–282. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1552699
- Katzman M.A. et al. Adult ADHD and comorbid disorders: clinical
implications of a dimensional approach [Elektronnyi resurs]. BMC Psychiatry,
2017, vol. 17, article id 302. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1463-3
- Polanczyk G.V. et al. Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the
worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal
of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2015, vol. 56, no. 3,
pp. 345–365. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12381
- Antshel K.M., Hier B.O., Barkley R.A. Executive Functioning Theory and
ADHD. In Goldstein S., Naglieri J. (eds.). Handbook of Executive Functioning.
New York: Springer, 2014. Pp. 107–120. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8106-5_1
- Austerman J. ADHD and behavioral disorders: Assessment, management, and an
update from DSM-5. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 2015, vol. 82,
no. 11, pp. 2–7. doi:10.3949/ccjm.82.s1.01
- Botvinick M., Braver T. Motivation and cognitive control: from behavior to
neural mechanism. Annual Review of Psychology, 2015, vol. 66,
pp. 83–113. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015044
- Reale L. et al. Comorbidity prevalence and treatment outcome in children
and adolescents with ADHD. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2017,
vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1443–1457.
- Cooper C.A., Corpus J.H. Learners’ developing knowledge of strategies for
regulating motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2009,
vol. 30, pp. 525–536. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.032
- de Boo G.M., Prins P.J. Social incompetence in children with ADHD: possible
moderators and mediators in social-skills training. Clinical Psychology Review,
2007, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 78–97.
- Di Domenico S.I., Ryan R.M. The Emerging Neuroscience of Intrinsic
Motivation: A New Frontier in Self-Determination Research [Elektronnyi resurs].
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2017, vol. 11, article 145.
- Sridhar C. et al. Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
using imaging and signal processing techniques. Computers in Biology and
Medicine, 2017, vol. 88, pp. 93–99.
- Silberstein R.B. et al. Dopaminergic modulation of default mode network
brain functional connectivity in attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder
[Elektronnyi resurs]. Brain and Behavior, 2016, vol. 6, no. 12,
- DuPaul G.J., Gormley M.J., Laracy S.D. School-based interventions for
elementary school students with ADHD. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics
of North America, 2014, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 687–697.
- Fefer S.A., Ogg J.A., Dedrick R.F. Use of Polynomial Regression to
Investigate Biased Self-Perceptions and ADHD Symptoms in Young Adolescents.
Journal of Attention Disorders, 2018, vol. 22, no. 12,
pp. 1113–1122. doi:10.1177/1087054715573993
- Guare R. Context in the development of executive functions in children.
Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 2014, vol. 3, no. 3,
pp. 226–232. doi:10.1080/21622965.2013.870015
- Gureasko-Moore S., Dupaul G.J., White G.P. The effects of self-management
in general education classrooms on the organizational skills of adolescents
with ADHD. Behavior modification, 2006, vol. 30, no. 2,
pp. 159–183. doi:10.1177/0145445503259387
- Hinshaw S.P. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Controversy,
Developmental Mechanisms, and Multiple Levels of Analysis. Annual Review of
Clinical Psychology, 2018, vol. 14, pp. 291–316.
- Tsujimoto S. et al. Increased prefrontal oxygenation related to
distractor-resistant working memory in children with
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Psychiatry & Human
Development, 2013, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 678–688.
- Jia M., Jiang Y., Mikami A.Y. Positively Biased Self-Perceptions in
Children with ADHD: Unique Predictor of Future Maladjustment. Journal of
Abnormal Child Psychology, 2016, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 575–586.
- Kouneiher F., Charron S., Koechlin E. Motivation and cognitive control in
the human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2009, vol. 12,
no. 7, pp. 939–945. doi:10.1038/nn.2321
- Kring A.M., Barch D.M. The motivation and pleasure dimension of negative
symptoms: neural substrates and behavioral outputs. European
Neuropsychopharmacology, 2014, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 725–736.
- Leahy L.G. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Historical Review
(1775 to Present). Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services,
2017, vol. 55, no. 9. pp. 10–16.
- Linden M., Weddigen J. Minimal cerebral dysfunctions and ADHD in adulthood.
Der Nervenarzt, 2016, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 1175–1184.
- Mueller A. et al. Linking ADHD to the Neural Circuitry of Attention. Trends
in Cognitive Sciences, 2017, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 474–488.
- Loe I.M., Feldman H.M. Academic and Educational Outcomes of Children With
ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2007, vol. 32, no. 6,
pp. 643–654. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054
- Magnin E., Maurs C. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during
adulthood. Revue neurologique (Paris), 2017, vol. 173, no. 7–8,
pp. 506–515. doi:10.1016/j.neurol.2017.07.008
- Martin A.J. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling
ADHDeffects from other personal and contextual factors. School Psychology
Quarterly, 2014, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 395–408.
- Merkt J., Gawrilow C. Health, Dietary Habits, and Achievement Motivation in
College Students With Self-ReportedADHD Diagnosis. Journal of Attention
Disorders, 2016, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 727–740.
- Volkow N.D. et al. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with
dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway. Molecular Psychiatry, 2011,
vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1147–1154. doi:10.1038/mp.2010.97
- Muskens J.B., Velders F.P., Staal W.G. Medical comorbidities in children
and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and attentiondeficit
hyperactivity disorders: a systematic review. European Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry, 2017, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1093–1103.
- McQuade J.D. et al. Perceived social acceptance and peer status
differentially predict adjustment in youth with and without ADHD. Journal of
attention disorders, 2014, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 31–43.
- Schulz K.P. et al. Prefrontal and parietal correlates of cognitive control
related to the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
diagnosed in childhood. Cortex, 2017, vol. 90, pp. 1–11.
- DuPaul G.J. et al. Preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder: impairments in behavioral, social, and school functioning. Journal of
the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2001, vol. 40,
no. 5, pp. 508–515. doi:10.1097/00004583-200105000-00009
- Dovis S. et al. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational
impairments and deficitsin visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in
ADHD subtypes. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2015, vol. 24,
no. 5, pp. 575–590. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0612-1
- Wu J. et al. Role of dopamine receptors in ADHD: a systematic
meta-analysis. Molecular Neurobiology, 2012, vol. 45, no. 3,
pp. 605–620. doi:10.1007/s12035-012-8278-5
- Paradoxes in Education: Learning in a Plural Society. In Sage R. (ed.). The
University of Buckingham, UK: SensePublishers, 2017. 288 p.
- Schunk D.H., Meece J.R., Pintrich P.R. Motivation in education: Theory,
research, and applications. Boston: Pearson, 2014. 436 p.
- Sideridis G.D. Classroom goal structures and hopelessness as predictors of
day-to-day experience at school: Differences between students with and without
learning disabilities. International Journal of Educational Research, 2005,
vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 308–328. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2006.06.008
- Uekermann J. et al. Social cognition in attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD). Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2010, vol. 34,
no. 5, pp. 734–743. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.10.009
- Tabassam W., Grainger J. Self-Concept, Attributional Style and
Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities with and without
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Learning Disability Quarterly, 2002,
vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 141–151. doi:10.2307/1511280
- Taylor E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: overdiagnosed or
diagnoses missed? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2017, vol. 102,
no. 4, pp. 376–379. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2016-310487
- Dekkers T.J. et al. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD:
depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation? European Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry, 2017, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1471–1481.
- Morsink S. et al. What motivates individuals with ADHD? A qualitative
analysis from the adolescent's point of view. European Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry, 2017, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 923–932.
- Mawjee K. et al. Working Memory Training in ADHD: Controlling for
Engagement, Motivation, and Expectancy of Improvement (Pilot Study). Journal of
Attention Disorders, 2017, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 956–968.