Russian Psychological Issues
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice For AuthorsAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2020. Vol. 9, no. 4)

Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (online): 2304-4977


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 2012

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


The development of adolescent behavioral autonomy and parental control on the example of independent city movements 103


Polivanova K.N.
PhD in Psychology, Director of Contemporary Childhood Research Center, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Bochaver A.A.
PhD in Psychology, Researcher, Centre for Modern Childhood Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Pavlenko K.V.
PhD in Sociology, Analyst, Centre for Modern Childhood Studies, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

The article is centered on the disclosure of links between the formation of child behavioral autonomy (self-reliance), manifested in independent movements around the city, and parental practices, primarily – the practice of controlling and supporting the autonomy of the child. It has been found that a number of environmental factors influence the way parents perceive the environment and, as a result, how early and freely they allow children to move around the territory without adult supervision. Also, the socio-economic status of the family, the number of children, their gender, age and the subjective assessment of their maturity by parents have an impact on the accessibility of independent movements for children. Empirical evidence confirms that different forms of control – behavioral, providing the activity framework, and manipulative (psychological) aimed at tracking a child's thoughts and experiences – have different effects on a child's development. The perspective of empirical studies of independent movement of children is discussed.

Keywords: behavioral autonomy, self-reliance, adolescence, urban development, growing up, parental control, parental practices

Column: Developmental psychology


For Reference


The study was conducted with the support of the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research (RFBR), project number 19-113-505558.

  1. Glazkov K.P. Litsenziya na nezavisimuyu mobil'nost' shkol'nikov v kontekste otnoshenii s roditelyami [The license for independent mobility of schoolchildren in the context of relations with parents] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Gorodskie issledovaniya i praktiki = Urban Studies and Practices, 2016. Vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 37–46. URL: (Accessed 19.12.2020). (In Russ.).
  2. Gorlova N.V. Razreshenie konfliktov avtonomii: podkhod k issledovaniyu lichnostnoi avtonomii podrostkov [Autonomy conflicts resolution: theoretical approach to adolescents’ personal autonomy] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Natsional'nyi psikhologicheskii zhurnal = National Psychological Journal, 2019. Vol. 1, no. 33, pp. 47–57. URL: (Accessed 19.12.2020). (In Russ.).
  3. Karabanova O.A., Poskrebysheva N.N. Razvitie lichnostnoi avtonomii podrostkov v otnosheniyakh s roditelyami i sverstnikami [Development of personal autonomy of adolescents in relations with parents and peers] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Ser. 14. Psikhologiya = Moscow University Bulletin. Ser. 14. Psychology, 2011. no. 2, pp. 36–47. URL: (Accessed 19.12.2020). (In Russ.).
  4. Polivanova K.N., Bochaver A.A., Nisskaya A.K. Vzroslenie pyatiklassnikov: 1960‑e vs 2010-e [Fifth-Graders Moving into Adulthood: The 1960s vs the 2010s] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Voprosy obrazovaniya = Educational Studies Moscow, 2017. no. 2, pp. 185–205. URL: (Accessed 19.12.2020). (In Russ.).
  5. Leont'ev D.A. et al. Psikhologiya vybora [Psychology of choice]. Moscow: Smysl, 2015. 610 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Sergeeva O.V., Laktyukhina E.G. Sotsial'nye aspekty tsifrovizatsii detskoi gorodskoi mobil'nosti [Social aspects of digitalization of children's urban mobility] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Zhurnal issledovanii sotsial'noi politiki = Journal of Social Policy Research, 2019. Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 507–524. URL: (Accessed 19.12.2020). (In Russ.).
  7. Sivak E.V., Glazkov K.P. Zhizn' vne klassa: povsednevnaya mobil'nost' shkol'nikov [Life Outside the Classroom: Everyday Mobility of School Students] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Voprosy obrazovaniya = Educational Studies Moscow, 2017. no. 2, pp. 113–133. URL: (Accessed 19.12.2020). (In Russ.).
  8. Erikson E. Identichnost': yunost' i krizis [Identity: adolescence and crisis]. Moscow: Progress, 1996. 340 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Jelleyman C. et al. A cross-sectional description of parental perceptions and practices related to risky play and independent mobility in children: the New Zealand State of Play Survey. International journal of environmental research and public health, 2019. Vol. 16, no. 2, 19 p. DOI:10.3390/ijerph16020262
  10. Alparone F.R., Pacilli M.G. On children’s independent mobility: The interplay of demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors. Children’s Geographies, 2012. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 109–122. DOI:10.1080/14733285.2011.638173
  11. Arnett J.J., Tanner J.L. The emergence of emerging adulthood: The new life stage between adolescence and young adulthood. In Furlong A. (ed.), Routledge handbook of youth and young adulthood. London: Routledge, 2016, pp. 50–56.
  12. Schoeppe S. et al. Associations of children’s independent mobility and active travel with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2013. Vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 312–319. DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2012.11.001
  13. Schoeppe S. et al. Australian children’s independent mobility levels: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data between 1991 and 2012. Children's Geographies, 2016. Vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 408–421. DOI:10.1080/14733285.2015.1082083
  14. Barber B.K. Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 1996. Vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 3296–3319. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01915.x
  15. Barber B.K., Harmon E.L. Violating the self: Parental psychological control of children and adolescents. In Barber B.K. (ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents. Washington, DC: APA, 2002, pp. 15–52. DOI:10.1037/10422-002
  16. Barber B.K., Olsen J.E., Shagle S.C. Associations between parental psychological and behavioral control and youth internalized and externalized behaviors. Child Development, 1994. Vol. 65. № 4, pp. 1120–1136. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00807.x
  17. Baumrind D. Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 1971. Vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–103. DOI:10.1037/h0030372
  18. Baumrind D. Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth and Society, 1978. Vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 239–276. DOI:10.1177/0044118X7800900302
  19. Campione-Barr N., Lindell A.K., Giron S.E. Developmental changes in parental authority legitimacy and over-time associations with adjustment: Differences in parent, first-born, and second-born perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 2020. Vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 951–969. DOI:10.1037/dev0000653
  20. Fyhri A. et al. Children's active travel and independent mobility in four countries: development, social contributing trends and measures. Transport Policy, 2011. Vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 703–710. DOI:10.1016/j.tranpol.2011.01.005
  21. Shaw B. et al. Children's Independent Mobility: An International Comparison and Recommendations for Action [Elektronnyi resurs]. London: Policy Studies Institute, 2015. 94 p. URL: (Accessed 21.12.2020).
  22. Mackett R. et al. Children's independent movement in the local environment. Built Environment, 2007. Vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 454–468. DOI:10.2148/benv.33.4.454
  23. Craig L., van Tienoven T.P. Gender, mobility and parental shares of daily travel with and for children: a cross-national time use comparison. Journal of transport geography, 2019. Vol. 76, pp. 93–102. DOI:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.03.006
  24. de Ruyter D.J., Schinkel A. On the Relations Between Parents' Ideals and Children's Autonomy. Educational theory, 2013. Vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 369–388. DOI:10.1111/edth.12029
  25. Gargurevich R., Soenens B. Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Personality Vulnerability to Depression: A Study in Peruvian Late Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2015. Vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 911–921. DOI:10.1007/s10826-015-0265-9
  26. Brown B. et al. Gender differences in children's pathways to independent mobility. Children's Geographies, 2008. Vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 385–401. DOI:10.1080/14733280802338080
  27. George C., Solomon J. Internal working models of caregiving and security of attachment at age six. Infant mental health journal, 1989. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 222–237. DOI:10.1002/1097-0355(198923)10:3%3C222::AID-IMHJ2280100308%3E3.0.CO;2-6
  28. Gittins C., Hunt C. Parental behavioural control in adolescence: How does it affect self-esteem and self-criticism? Journal of Adolescence, 2019. Vol. 73. P. 26–35. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.03.004
  29. Grolnick W.S. The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. London: Psychology Press, 2002. 200 p.
  30. Grolnick W.S., Pomerantz E.M. Issues and challenges in studying parental control: Toward a new conceptualization. Child Development Perspectives, 2009. Vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 165–170. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00099.x
  31. Heymans P.G. Developmental Tasks: A Cultural Analysis of Human Development. In TerLaak J.J.F., Heymans P.G., Podol'skij A.I. (eds.), Developmental tasks: Towards a cultural analysis of human development. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, pp. 3–33.
  32. Hillman M., Adams J., Whitelegg J. One False Move: A Study of Children’s Independent Mobility. London, UK: Policy Studies Institute, 1990. 192 p.
  33. Smith A. et al. «I don’t want to grow up, I’m a [Gen X, Y, Me] kid»: Increasing maturity fears across the decades. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2017. Vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 655–662. DOI:10.1177/0165025416654302
  34. Page A.S. et al. Independent mobility in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity in children aged 10-11 years: The PEACH Project. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2009. Vol. 6, article ID 2, 9 p. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-6-2
  35. Janssen I., Ferrao T., King N. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2016. Vol. 3, pp. 98–102. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.12.008
  36. Johannson M. Environment and parental factors as determinants of mode for children’s leisure travel. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2006. Vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 156–169. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.05.005
  37. Karsten L. It all used to be better? Different generations on continuity and change in urban children’s daily use of space. Children's Geographies, 2005. Vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 275–290. DOI:10.1080/14733280500352912
  38. Koehn A.J., Kerns K.A. Parent–child attachment: metaanalysis of associations with parenting behaviors in middle childhood and adolescence. Attachment, Human Development, 2018. Vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 378-405. DOI: 10.1080/14616734.2017.1408131
  39. Lewis J., Sarre S., Burton J. Dependence and independence. Community, Work and Family, 2007. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 75–92. DOI:10.1080/13668800601110827
  40. Maccoby E.E., Martin J.A. Socialization in the Context of the Family: Parent-Child Interaction. In P.H. Mussen, E.M. Hetherington (eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, Personality, and Social Development. New York: Wiley, 1983, pp. 1–101.
  41. Marzi I., Reimers A.K. Children’s independent mobility: Current knowledge, future directions, and public health implications. International journal of environmental research and public health, 2018. Vol. 15, no. 11, 15 p. DOI:10.3390/ijerph15112441
  42. Ayllón E. et al. Parents’ Willingness and Perception of Children’s Autonomy as Predictors of Greater Independent Mobility to School. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019. Vol. 16, no. 5. 14 p. DOI:10.3390/ijerph16050732
  43. Rote W.M., Smetana J.G. Beliefs About Parents’ Right to Know: Domain Differences and Associations With Change in Concealment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2016. Vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 334–344. DOI:10.1111/jora.12194
  44. Schaefer E.S. A configurational analysis of children's reports of parent behavior. Journal of consulting psychology, 1965. Vol. 29, no. 6. P. 552–557. DOI:10.1037/h0022702
  45. Scheiner J., Huber O., Lohmüller S. Children’s independent travel to and from primary school: Evidence from a suburban town in Germany. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 2019. Vol. 120, pp. 116–131. DOI:10.1016/j.tra.2018.12.016
  46. Seydlitz R. The effects of age and gender on parental control and delinquency. Youth and Society, 1991. Vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 175–201. DOI:10.1177/0044118X91023002002
  47. Singer S.I., Levine M. Power-control theory, gender, and delinquency: a partial replication with additional evidence on the effects of peers. Criminology, 1988. Vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 627–648. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00857.x
  48. Schoeppe S. et al. Socio-demographic factors and neighbourhood social cohesion influence adults’ willingness to grant children greater independent mobility: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 2015. Vol. 15, article ID 690, 8 p. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2053-2
  49. Soenens B., Vansteenkiste M. A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 2010. Vol. 30, no. 1, pp.74–99. DOI:10.1016/j.dr.2009.11.001
  50. Stattin H., Kerr M. Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 2000. Vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1072–1085. DOI:10.1111/1467-8624.00210
  51. Steinberg L. Autonomy, conflict, and harmony in the family relationship. In S.S. Feldman, G.R. Elliott (eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press, 1990, pp. 255–276.
  52. Ginsburg K.R. et al. The importance of play in promoting health development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics, 2007. Vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 182–191. DOI:10.1542/peds.2006-2697
  53. Prezza M. et al. The influence of psychosocial and environmental factors on children’s independent mobility and relationship to peer frequentation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 2001. Vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 435–450. DOI:10.1002/casp.643
  54. Veitch J. et al. What predicts children's active transport and independent mobility in disadvantaged neighborhoods? Health & place, 2017. Vol. 44, pp. 103–109. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.02.003
  55. Won S., Shirley L.Y. Relations of perceived parental autonomy support and control with adolescents' academic time management and procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 2018. Vol. 61, pp. 205–215. DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2017.12.001

© 2007–2021 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository     Webometrics Ranking of Repositories

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????