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Disabled child's "ingrowth to culture" 1483
The article is dedicated to the theoretical foundations of psychology of disability that were laid by G.Ya. Troshin and L.S. Vygotsky. It especially focuses on the idea of general and specific logic of mental development in children with psychophysical impairments, on the idea of primary and secondary (social) impairments, and on the problems of diagnostics. The author gives a brief analysis of psychodiagnostics' development in the process of selecting children that were to study in special schools, and formulates the main methodological problems and difficulties associated with diagnosing children with disabilities. These problems are mostly connected with the necessity of differentiated assessment of mental development. The task of diagnostics is to detect the presence and the level of psychological mechanisms' development that provide full acquisition of culture. That is why the leading tendencies in diagnostics are: studying mental activity, speech, and communicative abilities of a child, his actual and potential levels of development. The author also describes the principles of choosing diagnostic techniques.
Keywords: psychology of disability, normal and impaired development, logic of mental development, primary and secondary impairment of development, methodological problems of diagnosing impaired development
Column: Theory and Methodology