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Cultural-Historical Psychology

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 1816-5435

ISSN (online): 2224-8935


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 2005

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal

Affiliated ISCAR


Exploring 'cev', 'bik', 'mur', and 'lag' in the New Millennium 925

Towsey P.M.

The research exercise on which this paper is based aimed to replicate use of the instrument («Vygotsky's Blocks») of Vygotsky and Sakharov in combination with the 22 wooden blocks and the later adaptations and scoring framework of Hanfmann and Kasanin. This procedure — the functional method of double stimulation — examined new concept formation from early childhood to adulthood (N=60 subjects, aged three to 7-6-years-old) to establish whether contemporary adults and children produced the same or similar patterns as those described by Vygotsky. The study found a developmental trend consistent with Vygotsky's writings on the ontogenesis of concept formation. The path from the syncretic, to the concrete and factual, to the intermediate phase before true conceptual thought becomes possible was reflected in a positive correlation between the age of the subjects and their modes of thinking. This verified Vygotsky's assertion that true conceptual thinking only becomes possible in adolescence. This study aimed to encourage further research with this procedure to confirm the trends found by this study and to validate the adapted scoring method of Hanfmann and Kasanin for the purposes of cross sectional use.

Keywords: Vygotsky, Sakharov, Hanfmann and Kasanin, Kozulin, Vygotsky's Blocks, concept formation, method of double stimulation, cross-sectional

Column: Empirical Research


For Reference

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  2. Fuad Topic, Ibrahimpasic (2006). Hanfmann Kasanin concept formation or Vygotsky Test: History of the test, Privately commissioned translation into English (with permission from the author and publisher), Johannesburg/Cape Town: Towsey/Vita Brevis Language Services. (Source: Fuad Topic, Ibrahimpasic., (2001/5), Hanfmann Kasanin conceptformation or Vygotsky Test: History of the test / Test formiranja pojmova Hanfmann Kasanina ili Vigotskog: Povijesttesta, Suvremena Psihologija, 4:1—2 133—148. (First published by Suvremena Psihologija in 2001 without photographs, and subsequently published by the author on his web-site at with photographs.))
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  7. Stones E., Heslop J. (1968). The formation and extension of class concepts in primary school children // British Journal of Educational Psychology, 38: 261—271. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd.
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  9. Towsey P. (2007). In Search of Vygotsky's Blocks: Exploring cev, bik, mur, and lag in South Africa. Unpublished Master's Degree Research Report, Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand.
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