Previous issue (2019. Vol. 15, no. 4)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
The Application of the Sign and Symbolic Reflection in Sports 925
PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
This article analyzes studies of the symbolization process in sports activities. Many researchers (B. Britton, J. Van Raalte, L. Hardy, and others) note that athletes in their professional activities face a situation of uncertainty (a situation of deficit of means, of behavior models, etc.). The author shows that the peculiarity of using a symbol, in contrast to the sign, is connected primarily to the emergence of these types of situations. The analysis of experimental data shows that the symbolism in sports realizes two functions: cognitive and emotional. The symbolic image in a situation of uncertainty can document the stress associated with it, due to its transfer to the symbolic plan. Since the symbolic image does not have an unambiguous interpretation, one of its properties is the emotional strain, because of the differences between the real situation and figurative content of the symbol, thus its use can lead to increased motivation of athletes. The application of the symbolic image in the preparation of athletes offers new research directions in the field of sports psychology.
Keywords: symbolic reflection, symbol, sign, situation of uncertainty, sports activity
Column: Psychological Practice
- Veraksa A. N. Rol' simvolicheskogo oposredstvovaniya v poznavatel'noi deyatel'nosti mladshih shkol'nikov (na primere osvoeniya opredeleniya funkcii na urokah matematiki) // Vestn. Mosk. unta. Ser. 14. Psihologiya. 2009. № 2.
- Veraksa A. N. Formy znakovoi i simvolicheskoi reprezentacii v poznavatel'noi deyatel'nosti mladshih shkol'nikov // Kul'turnoistoricheskaya psihologiya. 2009. № 1.
- Kulagina N. V. Simvol i simvolicheskoe soznanie // Kul'turnoistoricheskaya psihologiya. 2006. № 1.
- Svas'yan K. A. Problema simvola v sovremennoi filosofii. Blagoveshensk, 2000.
- Broucek M., Bartholomew J. The effects of relaxation with a warning cue on pain tolerance // Journal of Sport Behavior. 1991. № 4.
- Buhrmann H., Zaugg M. Superstitions among basketball players: An investigation of various forms of superstitious beliefs and behavior among competitive basketballers at the junior high school to university level // Journal of Sport Behavior. 1981. № 4.
- Efran J., Lesser G., Spiller M. Enhancing Tennis Coaching With Youths Using a Metaphor Method // The Sport Psychologist. 1994. № 8.
- Fournier J. F., Deremaux S., Bernier M. Сontent, characteristics and function of mental images // Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008. № 9.
- Garza D., Feltz D. Effects of Selected Mental Practice on Performance, SelfEfficacy and Competition Confidence of Figure Skaters // The Sport Psychologist. 1998.
- Hanin Y., Stambulova N. Metaphoric Description of Performance States: An Application of the IZOF Model // The Sport Psychologist. 2002. № 16.
- Hanton S., Jones G. The Acquisition and Development of Cognitive Skills and Strategies: 1. Making the Butterflies Fly in Formation // The Sport Psychologist. 1999. № 13.
- Hardy L., Parfitt C. G. A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance // British Journal of Psychology. 1991. № 82.
- Jones G., Hanton S., Swain A. B. J. Intensity and Interpretation of Anxiety Symptoms in Elite and NоnElite Sports Performers // Personality and Individual Differences. 1994. № 17.
- Josephs I. E. Constructing one's self in the city of the silent: dialogue, symbols, and the role of «asif» in selfdeve lopment // Human Development. 1998. № 41.
- Lee D. S. Transparency of symbol // Philosophy and Rhetoric. 1982. № 2.
- Mahoney M. J., Avener M. Psychology of the elite athlete: An exploratory study // Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1977. № 1.
- Neil G., Anderson B., Sheppard W. Superstitions among male and female athletes of various levels of involvement // Journal of Sport Behavior. 1981. № 4.
- Orlick T., McCaffrey N. Mental training with children for sport and life // The Sport Psychologist. 1991. № 5.
- Palmer S. A comparison of mental practice techniques as applied to the developing competitive figure skater // The Sport Psychologist. 1992. № 6.
- Poolton J. M., Masters R. S. W., Maxwell J. P. The influence of analogy learning on decisionmaking in table tennis: Evidence from behavioral data // Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2006. № 7.
- Van Raalte J., Britton B. Chance orientation and superstitious behavior on the putting green // Journal of Sport Behavior. 1991. № 1
- Wright P., Erdal K. Sport superstition as a function of skill level and task difficulty // Journal of Sport Behavior. 2008. № 1.