Previous issue (2020. Vol. 16, no. 2)
Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)
Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition 930
PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
Student, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow, Russia
Student, Gymnasium #1514, Moscow, Russia
The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.
- Glebkin V.V. Tetrarnaya model’ kognitivnogo razvitiya i
kul’turno-istoricheskaya tipologiya [A four-level model of cognitive
development and cultural-historical psychology]. Etnograficheskoe
obozrenie [Ethnographic review], 2016, no. 3, pp. 128—145.
- Luriya A.R. Ob istoricheskom razvitii poznavatel’nykh protsessov [Cognitive
development: Its cultural and social foundations]. Moscow: Publ. Moskovskogo
universiteta, 1974. 172 p.
- Romanov V.N. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya antropologiya. [Cultural-historical
anthropology]. Moscow; Saint-Petersburg: Tsentr gumanitarnykh
initsiativ; Universitetskaya kniga, 2014. 361 p.
- Frumkina R.M. Interpretatsiya smyslov: priznaki i tselostnosti [The
interpretation of meanings: signs and integrities]. Semantika i
kategorizatsiya. [Semantics and categorization]. Moscow:
Nauka, 1991, pp. 128—143.
- Frumkina R.M. Psikholingvistika [Psycholinguistics]. Moscow: Publ. tsentr
«Akademiya», 2007. 320 p.
- Clancey W. Situated cognition: on human knowledge and computer
representations. Cambridge; NewYork: Cambridge University Press, 1997. 406
- Cole M., Gay J., Glick J., Sharp D. The Cultural Context of Learning and
Thinking. London: Methuen, 1971. 304 p.
- Cole M., Packer M. Culture and Cognition. In K.D. Keith (ed.),
Cross-cultural psychology: contemporary themes and perspectives.
Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, pp.
- de Vega M. Levels of embodied meaning: From pointing to counterfactuals.
Symbols and embodiment: debates on meaning and cognition. Oxford; New
York: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 285—308.
- de Vega M., Uritta M. Counterfactual sentences activate embodied meaning:
An action—sentence compatibility effect study. Journal of Cognitive
Psychology, 2011. Vol. 23 (8), pp. 962—973.
- de Vega M., Uritta M., Riffio B. Canceling updating in the comprehension of
counterfactuals embedded in narratives. Memory and Cognition,
2007. Vol. 35, pp. 1410—1421.
- Glebkin V. The Problem of Cultural-Historical Typology From the
Four-Level-Cognitive-Development Theory Perspective. Journal of
Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2015. Vol. 46 (8), pp. 1010—1022.
- Glebkin V. A cognitive view on cultural-historical typology. In Airenti G.
(eds.), Proceedings of the EuroAsianPacific Joint Conference on Cognitive
Science. Torino, Italy, September 25—27, 2015, pp. 738—743.
- Hiddleston E. A causal theory of counterfactuals. Nous, 2005. Vol.
39, pp. 632—657.
- Fauconnier G., Turner M. The Way We Think. Conceptual Blending and the
Mind’s Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books, 2002. 320 p.
- Ferguson H., Sanford A. Anomalies in real and counterfactual worlds: An
eye-movement investigation. Journal of Memory and Language, 2008. Vol.
58, pp. 609—626.
- Kirshner D., Whitson J. A. (eds.) Situated cognition: social, semiotic, and
psychological perspectives. Mahwah: Erlbaum, 1997. 323 р.
- Lakoff G. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago and London: The
University of Chicago Press, 1987. 614 р.
- Pearl J. Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 384
- Rips L., Edwards B. Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning.
Cognitive Science, 2013. Vol. 37, pp. 1107—1135.
- Robbins Ph., Aydede M. (eds.) The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition.
Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 520 р.
- Roese N. Counterfactual thinking. Psychological Bulletin,
1997. Vol. 121, pp. 133—148.
- Roese N.; Olson J. Counterfactual thinking: A critical overview. What
might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking. Mahwah:
Erlbaum, 1995, pp. 1—55.
- Rosch E. Principles of Categorization. Cognition and
categorization. Hillsdale: Erlbaum Associates; New York: Halsted Press,
1978, pp. 27—48.
- Watson A., Winbourne P. (eds.). New directions for situated cognition in
mathematics education. New York: Springer, 2007. 360 р.
- Zacks J. Flicker. Your Brain on Movies. Oxford, New York: Oxford
University Press, 2015. 342 p.