Russian Psychological Issues
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice Manuscript SubmissionAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us
Cultural-Historical Psychology - №4 / 2021 | Перейти к описанию
Web of Science СС

  Previous issue (2021. Vol. 17, no. 3)

Included in Scopus

12th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Cultural-Historical Psychology

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 1816-5435

ISSN (online): 2224-8935


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 2005

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal

Affiliated ISCAR


Engagement in Learning in the Massive Open Online Course: Implications for Epistemic Practices and Development of Transformative Digital Agency with Pre- and In-Service Teachers in Norway 157


Engeness I.
PhD in Law, Head of Research Group ICT in Teaching and Learning, Professor (full), Østfold University College, Norway

Nohr M.
Head of MOOC Studies, Assistant Professor, Østfold University College, Norway

This study examines how participants engage in learning in the Pedagogical Information and Communication Technology (ICTPED) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) aimed to enhance Norwegian pre- and in-service teachers’ professional digital competence. The study also provides an insight into how participants’ engagement in learning in the ICTPED MOOC may have enhanced their transformative digital agency. Analyses of participants’ engagement in learning draw on P.Y. Galperin’s pedagogical theory. The data comprised 310 participants’ responses to the questionnaire administered to all pre- and in-service teachers engaged in the ICTPED MOOC in 2016—2019. Mixed methods were applied for data analyses by providing quantitative and qualitative evidence about the participants’ engagement in the course. Findings reveal that the majority of participants engaged in learning by reading the textual information embedded in the course. In doing so, they followed the sequential progression informed by the course design. Other participants engaged in learning by watching the videos and listening to the audio files embedded in the course as well as by attempting the assignments and other activities. By following these approaches, the participants created their individual learning trajectories and therefore may have enhanced their digital agency and affected the epistemic practices in the course.

Keywords: Online learning, Massive Open Online Course, epistemic practices, transformative digital agency, Galperin

Column: Cultural-Historical Psychology: Traditions and Innovations


For Reference

A Part of Article

This study examines participants’ engagement in learning in the Pedagogical Information and Communication Technology (ICTPED) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) aimed to enhance the professional digital competence (PDC) of pre- and in-service teachers in Norway. The study also provides an insight into how participants’ engagement in learning may enhance their agency as independent and conscientious learners in digital environments.

  1. Anderson T. Social software to support distance education learners. In Anderson T. (ed.), The Theory and Practice of online learning,. Alberta, Canada: Athabasca University Press, 2008, 2nd ed., pp. 221—241.
  2. Arievitch I. M. Beyond the brain: An agentive activity perspective on mind, development, and learning. Rotterdam, NE: Sense Publishers, 2017.
  3. Armellini A., Padilla Rodriguez B.C. Are massive open online courses (MOOCs) pedagogically innovative? Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 2016. Vol. 14 (1), pp. 17—28.
  4. Azevedo R., Hadwin A. F. Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition—Implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science, 2005, 33 (5), 367—379.
  5. Bowen W.G., Finegan T.A. The economics of labor force participation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015.Vol. 2054.
  6. Braun V., Clarke V. What can “thematic analysis” offer health and wellbeing researchers? International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being, 2014. Vol. 9, p. 26152.
  7. Brevik L.M., Gudmundsdottir G.B., Lund A., & Strømme T. A. Transformative agency in teacher education: Fostering professional digital competence. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2019. Vol. 86, p.102875.
  8. Castaño-Muñoz J., Kalz M., Kreijns K., Punie Y. Who is taking MOOCs for teachers’ professional development on the use of ICT? A cross-sectional study from Spain. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 2018. Vol. 27 (5), pp. 607—624.
  9. Castleberry A., Nolen A. Thematic analysis of qualitative research data: Is it as easy as it sounds? Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 2018. Vol. 10 (6), pp. 807— 815.
  10. Conole G. Designing effective MOOCs. Educational Media International, 2015. Vol. 52 (4), pp. 239—252.
  11. Creswell J. W. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2012,
  12. Dalsgaard C., Paulsen M.F. Transparency in cooperative online education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 2009. Vol. 10 (3). Retrieved from article/view/671/1267
  13. Deng R., Benckendorff P., Gannaway D. Progress and new directions for teaching and learning in MOOCs. Computers & Education, 2019. Vol. 129, pp. 48—60.
  14. Edwards A. Designing tasks which engage learners with knowledge. In Thompson I. (ed.), Designing Tasks in Secondary Education: Enhancing Subject Understanding and Student Engagement. New York: Routledge, 2015, pp. 13—27.
  15. Engeness I. What teachers do: facilitating the writing process with feedback from EssayCritic and collaborating peers. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 2018. Vol. 27 (3), pp. 297—311.
  16. Engeness I. Teacher facilitating of group learning in science with digital technology and insights into students’ agency in learning to learn. Research in Science & Technological Education, 2020. Vol. 38 (1), pp. 42—62. DOI:10.1080/02635 143.2019.1576604
  17. Engeness I., Lund A. Learning for the future: Insights arising from the contributions of Piotr Galperin to the cultural-historical theory. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 2018. Epub ahead of print, 6 December, 2018. DOI:10.1016/j. lcsi.2018.11.004
  18. Engeness I., Nohr M., Singh A. B., Mørch A. Use of videos in the Information and Communication Technology Massive Open Online Course: Insights for learning and development of transformative digital agency with pre- and in-service teachers in Norway. Policy Futures in Education, 2020. DOI:10.1177/1478210319895189
  19. Fidalgo-Blanco Á., Sein-Echaluce M.L., García- Peñalvo F.J. From massive access to cooperation: lessons learned and proven results of a hybrid xMOOC/cMOOC pedagogical approach to MOOCs. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 2016. Vol. 13 (1), p. 24.
  20. Galperin P.Y. Lectures in Psychology, 2002, Moscow: Knizhnyy Dom Universitet.
  21. Gudmundsdottir G.B., & Hatlevik O.E. Newly qualified teachers’ professional digital competence: implications for teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 2018. Vol. 41 (2), pp. 214—231.
  22. Haenen J. Piotr Galperin: Psychologist in Vygotsky’s footsteps. Commack, NY: Nova Science, 1996.
  23. Ho A., Chuang, I., Reich J., Coleman C., Whitehill J., Northcutt C., Petersen R. HarvardX and MITx: Two years of open online courses fall 2012-summer 2014, 2015. Available at SSRN 2586847.
  24. Hood N., Littlejohn A., Milligan C.. Context counts: How learners' contexts influence learning in a MOOC. Computers & Education, 2015. Vol. 91, pp. 83—91.
  25. Ilomäki L., Paavola S., Lakkala M., Kantosalo A. Digital competence-an emergent boundary concept for policy and educational research. Education and Information Technologies, 2016. Vol. 21 (3), pp. 655—679.
  26. Instefjord E.J., Munthe E. Educating digitally competent teachers: A study of integration of professional digital competence in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2017. Vol. 67, pp. 37—45.
  27. Kasch J., Van Rosmalen P., Kalz M. A Framework towards Educational Scalability of Open Online Courses. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 2017. Vol. 23 (9), pp. 845—867.
  28. Kleiman G. M., Wolf M. A., Frye D. The digital learning transition MOOC for educators: Exploring a scalable approach to professional development. Friday Institute for Educational Innovation, College of Education. NC State University2013. Retrieved from
  29. Laurillard D. The educational problem that MOOCs could solve: professional development for teachers of disadvantaged students. Research in Learning Technology, 2016. Vol. 24, p. 29369.
  30. Leontiev A. The development of the psyche. Lisbon: Horizonte University, 1978.
  31. Littlejohn A., Hood N., Milligan C., Mustain P. Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and self-regulated learning in MOOCs. The Internet and Higher Education, 2016. Vol. 29, pp. 40—48.
  32. Ludwig D. Extended cognition and the explosion of knowledge. Philosophical Psychology, 2015. Vol. 28 (3), pp. 355—368.
  33. Lynch M.P. Neuromedia, extended knowledge and understanding. Philosophical Issues, 2014. Vol. 24 (1), pp. 299—313.
  34. Mazoue J. G. The MOOC Model: Challenging traditional education. EDUCASE Review Online, 2014. Retrieved from
  35. McGarr O., & McDonagh A. Digital competence in teacher education. Output 1 of the Erasmus+ funded Developing Student Teachers’ Digital Competence (DICTE) project, 2019. Retrieved from
  36. Mishra P., & Koehler M.J. Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 2006. Vol. 108 (6), pp. 1017—1054.
  37. Mäkitalo Å. On the notion of agency in studies of interaction and learning. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 2016. Vol. 10, pp. 64—67.
  38. OECD. Supporting Teacher Professionalism. Insights from TALIS 2013, 2016. Retrieved from https://
  39. Patton M.Q. Qualitative research and methods: Integrating theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2015.
  40. Rajala A., Martin, J., Kumpulainen K. Agency and learning: Researching agency in educational interactions. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 2016. Vol. 10, pp. 1—3.
  41. Rienties B., Toetenel L. The impact of learning design on student behaviour, satisfaction and performance: A cross-institutional comparison across 151 modules. Computers in Human Behavior, 2016. Vol. 60, pp. 333—341.
  42. Røkenes F.M., Krumsvik R.J. Development of student teachers’ digital competence in teacher education—A literature review. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 2014. Vol. 9 (04), pp. 250—280.
  43. Rønning W.M. Nettskolestudenter — motiver, mestring og ambisjoner. Trondheim: Insitutt for voksnes læring, 2013. Retrieved from uploads/2013/11/nettskolestudenter.pdf.
  44. Rubtsova O.V. Digital Media as a New Means of Mediation (Part One). Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2019. Vol. 15 (3), pp. 117—124. DOI:10.17759/chp.2019150312. (In Russ.)
  45. Rückriem G. Digital technology and mediation — a challenge to activity theory. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2010. Vol. 4, pp. 30—38.
  46. Saadatmand M., & Kumpulainen K. Participants’ perceptions of learning and networking in connectivist MOOCs. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2014, 10 (1), 16—30.
  47. Salmon G. E-tivities: The key to active online learning. London: Routledge, Falmer, 2013.
  48. Serdyukov P., Hill R. Flying with clipped wings: Are students independent in online college classes. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 2013. Vol. 6 (1), pp. 52— 65.
  49. Starkey L. A review of research exploring teacher preparation for the digital age. Cambridge Journal of Education, 2020. Vol. 50 (1), pp. 37—56. DOI:10.1080/03057 64X.2019.1625867
  50. Stetsenko A. The transformative mind: Expanding Vygotsky's approach to development and education. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  51. Säljö R. Literacy, digital literacy and epistemic practices: The co-evolution of hybrid minds and external memory systems. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 2012. Vol. 7 (01), pp. 5—19.
  52. Toven-Lindsey B., Rhoads R.A., & Lozano J.B. Virtually unlimited classrooms: Pedagogical practices in massive open online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 2015. Vol. 24, pp. 1—12.
  53. Vaesen K. Dewey on extended cognition and epistemology. Philosophical Issues, 2014. Vol. 24 (1), pp. 426— 438.
  54. Van Manen M. Phenomenology of practice: Meaning-giving methods in phenomenological research and writing. New York: Routledge, 2016.
  55. Vivian R., Falkner K., & Falkner N. Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development. Research in Learning Technology, 2014. Vol. 22. DOI:10.3402/ rlt.v22.24691
  56. Voiskounsky A.E. Internet — novaya oblast’ issledovaniy v psichologicheskoi nauke [The Internet as a new realm of psychological science]. Uchenye zapiski kafedry obschey psykhologii MGU [Scientific notes of the department of general psychology of Moscow State University]. Moscow: Smysl, 2002. Issue 1, pp. 82—101.
  57. Voiskounsky A.E. Psikhologiya i Internet [Psychology and the Internet]. Moscow: Acropol’, 2010. 439 p.
  58. Wang C.-H., Shannon D. M., Ross M. E. Students’ characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficacy, and course outcomes in online learning. Distance Education, 2013. Vol. 34 (3), pp. 302—323.

© 2007–2022 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository     Webometrics Ranking of Repositories

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????