Digital Transition Outcomes: From Online Reality to Mixed Reality 365
Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Education, Deputy Head of the Department of Personality Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Neuro- and Abnormal Psychology of the Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Nowadays, when most people are on the Internet and “connected” most time of the day and night, the Internet becomes a place of the socialization of modern children and adolescents, which requires a rethinking of changes in user activity, digital competence and online risks in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare user activity, online risks, and digital competence in adolescents and parents according to three population studies carried out in 2010, 2013, and 2019. The data of 1219 parents of 12—17-year-old adolescents and 1553 adolescents aged 12-17 years from 15 regions of Russia who replied to the research questions in 2019 were compared with the answers of 1203 adolescents aged 12—17 years and 1209 parents in 2013, as well as with the answers of 685 pairs “parent — teenager aged 12—16 years” in 2010. It was shown that a higher level of user activity by 2019 allows suggesting its transformation into experience of a “combined” reality, manifested at an objective level in complementing the online activity with most of daytime activities and at a subjective level — in adolescents’ experience of reality as combined and not divided into online and offline. Compared to 2010, adolescents are significantly less likely to encounter sexual content and malware online, but more often experience cyber-aggression and public revealing of their personal information without their consent. The overall level of digital competency by 2019 is higher than in 2013 for both adolescents and parents, with the largest changes related to responsibility, and the minimum changes — to motivation to improve their knowledge.
The reported study was funded by Russian science Foundation, project number 18-18-00365.
Soldatova G.U. Tsifrovaya socializaciya v
kul`turno-istoricheskoj paradigme: izmenyayushchijsya rebenok v
izmenyayushchemsya mire [Digital socialization in the cultural-historical
paradigm: a changing child in a changing world] Social`naia psikhologiia i
obshchestvo. [Social Psychology and Society]. 2018. Tom 9. №
3. S. 71—80.
Soldatova G.U., Nestik T.A., Rasskazova E.I., Zotova E.Yu.
Cifrovaya kompetentnost` rossiiskikh podrostkov i roditelei: rezul`taty`
vserossiiskogo issledovaniya. [Digital competence of Russian teenagers and
parents: results of the all-Russian research] Moscow: Foundation for Internet
Soldatova G.U., Rasskazova E.I. Kratkaya i skriningovaya
versii indeksa tsifrovoi kompetentnosti: verifikaciya i vozmozhnosti
primeneniya [Brief and screening versions of the digital competence index:
verification and application possibilities]. Natsionalnyi psikhologicheskii
zhurnal [National psychological journal] No. 3 (31). S. 47—56.
Soldatova G.U., Rasskazova E.I. Motivaciya v strukture
tsifrovoi kompetentnosti rossiiskikh podrostkov [Motivation in the structure of
the digital competence of Russian adolescents] Natsionalnyi
psikhologicheskii zhurnal [National psychological journal]. 2017. 1
(25). S. 3—14.
Appel M., Stiglbauer B., Batinic B., & Holtz P.
Internet use and verbal aggression: The moderating role of parents and peers.
Computers in human behavior. 2014. Т. 33. С. 235—241.
Baumgartner S.E., Weeda W.D., van der Heijden L.L., &
Huizinga M. The relationship between media multitasking and executive function
in early adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence. 2014. Т. 34. №.
8. С. 1120—1144.
Borca G., Bina M., Keller P.S., Gilbert L.R., &
BegottiT. Internet use and developmental tasks: Adolescents’ point of view.
Computers in Human Behavior. 2015. Т. 52. С. 49—58.
George M.J., Odgers C.L. Seven fears and the science of
how mobile technologies may be influencing adolescents in the digital age.
Perspectives on psychological science. 2015. Т. 10. № 6. С.
Gilster P. Digital Literacy. N.Y.: Wiley Computer
Elsaesser C., Russell B., Ohannessian C.M., & PattonD.
Parenting in a digital age: A review of parents’ role in preventing adolescent
cyberbullying. Aggression and violent behavior. 2017. Т. 35. С.
Fisher E.J.P., González Y.S., Caridad Martínez Tena А.
Bringing the Virtual to Reality-How Virtual Reality Can Enhance People’s Health
and Social Lives. Neurol Res Surg. 2019. 2(1). C. 1—10.
Flavián C., Ibáñez-Sánchez S., Orús C. The impact of
virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies on the customer experience
//Journal of Business Research. 2019. Т. 100. С. 547—560.
Ilomäki L., Kantosalo A., Lakkala M. What is digital
competence. Linked portal. Brussels: European Schoolnet (EUN). 2011. С.
Livingstone S., Haddon L., Görzig A., Ólafsson K. Risks
and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full
Findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online. 2011.
Livingstone S., Smith P.K. Annual research review: Harms
experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: The nature,
prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age.
Journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 2014. 55(6). С.
Manago A.M. Identity development in the digital age: The
case of social networking sites. The Oxford handbook of identity
development. 2015. С. 508—524.
Martin A., Madigan D. (Eds.). Digital literacies for
learning. Facet Publishing. 2006
Milgram P., Kishino F. A taxonomy of mixed reality visual
displays. IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems. 1994. 77(12).
Mossberger K., Tolbert C.J., McNeal R.S. Digital
citizenship: The Internet, society, and participation. MIt Press. 2007.
Pells K., Portela M.J.O., Revollo P.E. Experiences of peer
bullying among adolescents and associated effects on young adult outcomes:
Longitudinal evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Viet Nam. UNICEF Office of
Research- Innocenti, Florence. 2016. Available at:
Sherman L.E., Michikyan M., Greenfield P.M. The effects of
text, audio, video, and in-person communication on bonding between friends.
Cyberpsychology: Journal of psychosocial research on cyberspace. 2013. 7
(2) Available at: http://www.cdmc.ucla.edu/PG_Media_biblio_files/
Sherman%20et%20al.pdf (accessed 23.01.2020)
Shin, W., Lwin, M. O. How does “talking about the Internet
with others” affect teenagers’ experience of online risks? The role of active
mediation by parents, peers, and school teachers. New Media &
Society. 2017. 19 (7). С. 1109—1126.
Shin, W., Kang, H. Adolescents’ privacy concerns and
information disclosure online: The role of parents and the Internet.
Computers in Human Behavior. 2016. 54. С. 114—123.
Symons, K., Ponnet, K., Emmery, K., Walrave, M., &
Heirman, W. Parental knowledge of adolescents’ online content and contact
risks. Journal of youth and adolescence. 2017. 46 (2), С. 401—416.
Soldatova, G., Rasskazova, E., Zotova, E., Lebesheva, M.,
Geer, M., Roggendorf, P. Russian Kids Online Key findings of the EU Kids Online
II survey in Russia // Moscow: Foundation for Internet Development, 2013.
Available at:: http://www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/
Uncapher M.R., Thieu M.K., & Wagner A.D. Media
multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory.
Psychonomic bulletin & review. 2016. 23 (2). С. 483—490.
Yang, X., Zhu, L. Predictors of media multitasking in
Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Psychology. 2016. 51 (6).