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Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2075-3470

ISSN (online): 2311-9446


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 1992

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


Individual Psychology and Humanistic Psychology. Convergences and divergences between therapeutic approaches of Alfred Adler and Carl Rogers 2299

Bondarenko O.R.
PhD in Psychology, Доцент кафедры психологии личности ГУ ВШЭ. , Moscow, Russia

Lukan U.

In various comparisons between Individual Psychology and Humanistic Psychology similarities in the concept of man are seen. Furthermore the connections in the life history between Adler, the founder of Individual Psychology, and Maslow and Rogers, the two most important persons in Humanistic Psychology are shown here; Adler even was their teacher in New York in a certain extent. Theoretical convergences and divergences between the both edifices of ideas are reviewed and on the basis of concrete statements Adler’s role as a guiding intellectual force of the movement of Humanistic Psychology and Person-centered Approach is pointed out. Finally the growing discussion about efforts for integration between the different therapeutic approaches will be examined.

Keywords: Alfred Adler, Carl Rogers, Individual Psychology, Humanistic Psychology, Person-centered Psychotherapy

Column: Opinions, positions, discussions

For Reference

  1. Adler A. 1912. Über den nervösen Charakter. Grundzüge einer vergleichenden Individual- Psychologie und Psychotherapie. Wiesbaden: Bergmann.
  2. Adler A.1927. Individualpsychologie und Wissenschaft. Internationale Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie, 5, 401-408.
  3. Adler A. 1928. Kurze Bemerkungen über Vernunft, Intelligenz und Schwachsinn. Internationale Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie, 6, 267-272.
  4. Adler A. 1929a. Individualpsychologie in der Schule. Vorlesungen für Lehrer und Erzieher. Leipzig: Hirzel.
  5. Adler A. 1929b. Problems of Neurosis. A Book of Case-Histories. London:Kegan Paul, Trench Truebner & Co.
  6. Adler A. 1931. What Life Should Mean to You. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
  7. Adler A. 1933. Über den Ursprung des Strebens nach Überlegenheit und des Gemeinschaftsgefühls. Internationale Zeitschrift für Individualpsychologie, 11, 257-263.
  8. Adler A. 1980. Der Sinn des Lebens. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag.
  9. Adler A. 1981. Neurosen. Fallgeschichten. Frankfurt am Main: FischerTaschenbuch Verlag.
  10. Ansbacher H. L. 1971. Alfred Adler and humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 11, 53-63.
  11. Ansbacher H. L. 1990. Alfred Adler’s influence on the three leading cofounders of Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 30, 45-53.
  12. Ansbacher H. L. & Ansbacher R. R. 1972. Alfred Adlers Individualpsychologie. München: Ernst Reinhardt.
  13. Esser U. 1980. Rogers und Adler. Überlegungen zur Abgrenzung und zur Integration. Heidelberg: Asanger.
  14. Gomez E. A.; Gomez G. E. & O’Connell W. E. 1994. Adler, Natural High, and Other Humanistic Psycotherapies. Individual Psychology, 50, 288-296.
  15. Grawe K.; Donati E. & Bernauer F. 1994. Psychotherapie im Wandel. Von der Konfession zur Profession. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  16. Hoffmann,E. 1988. The right to be human: a biography of Abraham Maslow.Los Angeles: Tarcher.
  17. Kelly D. F. & Tausch R. 1984. Diskussion: Individualpsychologie und Gesprächstherapie. Adler und Rogers – A Comparative View. In T. Reinelt; Z. Otalora & H. Kappus (Hrsg.), Die Begegnung der Individualpsychologie mit anderen Therapieformen (107-117). München: Reinhardt.
  18. Kirschenbaum H. 1979. On Becoming Carl Rogers. New York: Delacorte.
  19. Maslow A. H. 1970. Tribute to Alfred Adler. Journal of Individual Psychology, 26, 13.
  20. Obuchowski K. 1988. Alfred Adler: Precursor of Humanistic Psychology. Individual Psychology, 44, 263-269.
  21. O’Connell W. E. 1991. Humanistic Identification : A New Translation for Gemeinschaftsgefühl. Individual Psychology, 47, 26-27.
  22. Rogers C. R. 1967. Autobiography. In E. W. Boring & G. Lindzey (Eds.), A history of psychology in biography, Vol. 5, (343-384). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  23. Watts R. E. 1996. Social Interest and the Core Conditions: Could It Be That Adler Influenced Rogers? Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 34, 165-170.
  24. Watts R. E. 1998. The Remarkable Parallel Between Roger’s Core Conditions and Adler’s Social Interest. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 54, 4-9.

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