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Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2075-3470

ISSN (online): 2311-9446


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 1992

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


Courage to Be. Hardiness and Faith 1598


Krichevec A.N.
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Department of Methodology of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Moscow State University. M. V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

Solodushkina M.V.
Teacher of the Department of General and Applied Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Orthodox Institute Of St. John The Theologian Of The Russian Orthodox University

The article presents a comparison between hardiness (the psychological construct by S. Maddi and D.A. Leontiev), the term "courage to be" and the defined conception of faith (by P. Tillich). It is shown, that Hardiness (by S. Maddi), despite author's opinion, appears to be not an operationalization of Tillich's "courage to be", but is a development of one of its aspects. Differences between the interpretation of the term in English and Russian variants of its operationalization are also discussed.

Keywords: challenge, hardiness, courage to be, existential anxiety

Column: Psychology of faith


For Reference

  1. Leont'ev D.A., Rasskazova E.I. Test zhiznestoikosti. M.: Smysl, 2006.
  2. Tillich P. Muzhestvo byt' // Izbrannoe. M.: Yurist, 1995a. S. 7—131.
  3. Tillich P. Dinamika very // Izbrannoe. M.: Yurist, 1995b. S. 132—215.
  4. Fominova A.N. Zhiznestoikost' lichnosti: monografya. M.: MPGU, 2012.
  5. Frankl V. Skazat' zhizni "Da": psikholog v kontslagere. M.: Smysl, 2004.
  6. Bartone P.T. Hardiness Рrotects Аgainst War-related Stress in Army Reserve Forces // Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. 1999. Vol. 51(2). P. 72—82.
  7. Bartone P.T. The Need for Positive Meaning in Military Operations: Reflections on Abu Ghraib // Military Psychology. 2005. Vol. 17(4). P. 315—324.
  8. Maddi S.R. Hardiness: An Operationalization of Existential Courage // Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 2004. Vol. 44(3). P. 279—298. doi:10.1177/0022167804266101
  9. Maddi S.R. et al. The Personality Construct of Hardiness, V: Relationships With the Construction of Existential Meaning in Life // Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 2011. Vol. 51(3). P. 369—388. doi:10.1177/0022167810388941

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