Russian Psychological Issues PsyJournals.ru
OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice For AuthorsAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2020. Vol. 28, no. 2)

Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)

Included in Scopus

Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2075-3470

ISSN (online): 2311-9446

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 1992

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal

 

The Hoffman Report: Psychologists and Torture. An Ethical Precaution for Psychologists 467

Kryuchkov K.S.
Post Graduate Student of the Personality Psychology Division, Psychology Department, National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5954-430X
e-mail: kkryuchkov@hse.ru

Abstract
The present paper introduces the readers to the Hoffman report — an independent attorney report on American Psychological Association (APA) officials’ participation in institutionalizing and developing torture techniques that were used to interrogate the prisoners of the secret Department of Defense prisons (Guantanamo, Abu Ghraib, etc.). People in charge of the APA were shown to have changed the ethical standards and APA regulations in such a way as to enable psychologists to participate in the so-called enhanced interrogations. We present the context of the report and the key findings and conclusions. We discuss the reaction of the psychological community and cite a number of papers that analyze the report from the theoretical and empirical standpoint, and reflect on the causes of the events. This situation can be viewed as a precaution for Russian psychologists likewise in making ethical decisions. Conclusion: Ethical codes do not constitute ethics per se nor do they protect from possible ethical violations, partly because abusers often are not just those who know the codes, but also those who write them.

Keywords: ethics in psychology, torture, American Psychological Association, ethical code, internal ethics

Column: Essay

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp.2020280109

For Reference

Acknowledgements

The author expresses his gratitude to prof. William Purcell (Point Park University, USA), who first introduced him with the Hoffman Report and gave him an idea of ethical codes problematization. The author also expresses his gratitude to his dissertation advisor, prof. Vadim A. Petrovskii (Higher School of Economics, Russia), who inspired his ethical searches. The author also wants to thank dr. Eugene Osin for giving the way to the broad open professional discussion of ethics in conjunction with law.

References
  1. Vorob’eva L.I. Psikhoterapiya i etika [Psychotherapy and Ethics]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2009. Vol. 17 (1), pp. 75—93. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  2. Debol’skii M.G., Zelenina M.M. Osnovnye eticheskie problemy psikhologicheskikh issledovanii v ispravitel’nykh uchrezhdeniyakh (obzor nauchnykh statei zarubezhnykh avtorov) [The main ethical problems of psychological research in correctional institutions (review of scientific articles of foreign authors)] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie psyedu.ru [Psychological Science and Education psyedu.ru], 2012. Vol. 4 (2). Available at: http://psyjournals.ru/psyedu_ ru/2012/n2/53523.shtml (Accessed 07.01.2020). (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  3. Diyankova I. Nekotorye eticheskie problemy v sovremennoi amerikanskoi psikhoterapii i psikhologicheskom konsul’tirovanii [Several ethical issues of modern American psychotherapy and psychological couseling]. Moskovskii psikhoterapevticheskii zhurnal [Moscow Psychotherapeutic Journal], 2002. Vol. 10 (4), pp. 114—149.
  4. Kryuchkov K.S. Kak zhe sdelat’ prakticheskuyu psikhologiyu etichnoi? Ili ob etike vneshnei i etike vnutrennei [How to make practical psychology ethical? On external and internal ethics]. Psikhologiya i psikhotekhnika [Psychology and Psychotechnics], 2018, no. 3, pp. 49—57. doi:10.7256/2454-0722.2018.3.26603
  5. Rasporyazhenie Pravitel’stva RF ot 02.12.2015 N 2471-r <Ob utverzhdenii Kontseptsii informatsionnoi bezopasnosti detei> [Elektronnyi resurs]. Availble at: https://legalacts.ru/doc/rasporjazhenie-pravitelstva-rf-ot-02122015-n-2471-r/ (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  6. Semenova N.D. Eticheskie osnovy psikhoterapii [Ethical foundations of psychotherapy]. Moskovskii psikhoterapevticheskii zhurnal [Moscow Psychotherapeutic Journal], 1997. Vol. 5 (2), pp. 44—52.
  7. Soldatova G.U. Kriterii vrednogo dlya zdorov’ya i razvitiya detei kontenta informatsionnoi produktsii, rasprostranyaemoi v informatsionno-telekommunikatsionnoi seti Internet [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://rkn. gov.ru/docs/Razdel_6.pdf (Accessed 29.02.2020)
  8. Eidemiller E.G. Novoe litso psikhoterapii: samostoyatel’naya, mezhdistsiplinarnaya spetsial’nost’ [A new face of psychotherapy: An independent interdisciplinary profession]. Moskovskii psikhoterapevticheskii zhurnal [Moscow Psychotherapeutic Journal], 2000. Vol. 8 (3), pp. 178—181.
  9. Ackerman M.J. Forensic report writing. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2006. Vol. 62 (1), pp. 59—72. doi:10.1002/jclp.20200
  10. Ahn H., Wampold B. Where oh where are the specific ingredients? A meta-analysis of component studies in counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2001. Vol. 48 (3), pp. 251—257. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.48.3.251
  11. American Psychological Association. Board and Council Actions Related to the Report of the Independent Review Relating to APA Ethics Guidelines, National Security Interrogations and Torture [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www. apa.org/independent-review/board-council-actions (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  12. American Psychological Association. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/ ethics-code-2017.pdf (Accessed 07.01.2020).
  13. American Psychological Association. President response to the Department of Defense letter [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/news/press/ statements/detainee-policy-letter.pdf (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  14. American Psychological Association. Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/independent-review/psychologists-interrogation. pdf (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  15. American Psychological Association. Revision of Ethics Code Standard 3.04 [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/standard-304 (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  16. American Psychological Association. Statement of APA Board of Directors: Outside Counsel to Conduct Independent Review of Allegations of Support for Torture [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/news/press/ releases/2014/11/risen-allegations (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  17. American Psychological Association. Summary of APA Activities Related to the Independent Review [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/ independent-review/moving-forward (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  18. American Psychological Association. Timeline of APA Policies & Actions Related to Detainee Welfare and Professional Ethics in the Context of Interrogation and National Security [Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.apa.org/news/press/statements/ interrogations (Accessed 29.02.2020).
  19. Bernstein J.W. Skeletons in the closet: The American Psychological Association under scrutiny. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 2017. Vol. 14 (2), pp. 143— 151. doi:10.1002/aps.1522
  20. Botticelli S. Discussion of Philip Cushman’s “Hoffman Report as Earthquake”: Hopes and challenges on the path to psychology’s re-moralization. Psychoanalysis, Self and Context, 2018. Vol. 13 (4), pp. 342—349. doi:10.1080/24720038.2018.1499285
  21. Conrad M. Moving upstream in the post-Hoffman era: When ethical responsibilities conflict with the law. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2019. Vol. 50 (6), pp. 407—418. doi:10.1037/pro0000109
  22. Cushman P. The earthquake that is the Hoffman Report on torture: Toward a re-moralization of psychology. Psychoanalysis, Self and Context, 2018. Vol. 13 (4), pp. 311—334. doi:10.1080/24720038.2018.1499286
  23. Dalal F. Ethics versus Compliance. The Institution, Ethical Psychotherapy Practice (and Me). Group Analysis, 2014. Vol. 47 (1), pp. 62—81. doi:10.1177/0533316413520528
  24. Dryjanska L. An organizational scandal in psychology: social representations of Hoffman Report in Europe. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2017. Vol. 26 (4), pp. 613—627. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2017.1333982
  25. Elkins D. The American Psychological Association and the Hoffman Report. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2016. Vol. 56 (2), pp. 99—109. doi:10.1177/0022167815619064
  26. Francis P.C., Dugger S.M. Professionalism, Ethics, and Value-Based Conflicts in Counseling: An Introduction to the Special Section. Journal of Counseling & Development, 2014. Vol. 92 (2), pp. 131—134. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00138.x
  27. Guishard M.A., Halkovic A., Galletta A., et. al. Toward Epistemological Ethics: Centering Communities and Social Justice in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Social Research, 2018. Vol. 19 (3), pp. 681—704. doi:10.17169/fqs-19.3.3145
  28. Hoffman D., Carter D.J., Viglucci Lopez C.R., et al. Report to the special committee of the board of directors of the American Psychological Association. Independent review relating to APA ethics guidelines, national security interrogations, and torture [Elektronnyi resurs]. Chicago, USA: Sidley Austin LLP, 2015. Available at: https:// www.apa.org/independent-review/revised-report.pdf (Accessed 07.01.2020).
  29. Tribe R., Morrissey J. (eds.). Handbook of Professional and Ethical Practice for Psychologists, Counsellors and Psychotherapists. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2015. 360 p.
  30. Hollander N. Torture and the Problem of the Bystander: Commentary on Philip Cushman’s “The Earthquake That Is the Hoffman Report on Torture: Toward a Re-Moralization of Psychology”. Psychoanalysis, Self and Context, 2018. Vol. 13 (4), pp. 368—377. doi:10.1080/24720038.2018.1499290
  31. Houck S., Repke M. When and why we torture: A review of psychology research. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2017. Vol. 3 (3), pp. 272—283. doi:10.1037/tps0000120
  32. Koocher G.P., Keith-Spiegel P. Ethics in Psychology and the Mental Health Professions: Standards and Cases. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. 653 p.
  33. Lichtenstein B. Beyond Abu Ghraib: The 2010 APA Ethics Code Standard 1.02 and Competency for Execution Evaluations. Ethics & Behavior, 2013. Vol. 23 (1), pp. 67—70. doi:10.1080/10508422.2013.757958
  34. LoCicero A., Marlin R.P., Jull-Patterson D., et al. Enabling torture: APA, clinical psychology training and the failure to disobey. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 2016. Vol. 22 (4), pp. 345—355. doi:10.1037/pac0000213
  35. Matarazzo J.D. The American Psychological Association’s Hoffman report allegations of my association with the “CIA torture” program [Elektronnyi resurs]. Health Psychology Open, 2018. Vol. 5 (2). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC6122255/ (Accessed 07.01.2020). doi:10.1177/2055102918798235
  36. O’Neill P. Psychology in and out of the shadows. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 2016. Vol. 57 (3), pp. 226—231. doi:10.1037/cap0000055
  37. Pope K., Vasquez M. Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons, 2016. 520 p.
  38. Ragusea S. Is it ethics or law? [Elektronnyi resurs]. The National Psychologist, 2015. Available at: https://nationalpsychologist.com/2015/05/is-it-ethics-or-law/102875.html (Accessed 07.01.2020).
  39. Risen J. Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War. Boston, MA: Mariner Books, 2015. 304 p.
  40. Seligman M. The Hoffman report, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the defense of the nation: A personal view. Health Psychology Open, 2018. Vol. 5 (2), pp. 2—9. doi:10.1177/2055102918796192
  41. Soldz S. It is Time for Psychologists to Face the Truth: Commentary on Philip Cushman’s “The Earthquake That is the Hoffman Report on Torture”. Psychoanalysis, Self and Context, 2018. Vol. 13 (4), pp. 350—367. doi:10.1080/2472 0038.2018.1499292
  42. Soldz S., Olson B., Arrigo J.M. Interrogating the ethics of operational psychology. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 2017. Vol. 27 (4), pp. 273—286. doi:10.1002/casp.2321
  43. Welch B. The American Psychological Association and torture: How could it happen? International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 2017. Vol. 14 (2), pp. 116—124. doi:10.1002/aps.1519
  44. Yadegarfard M., Bahramabadian F. Sexual orientation and human rights in the ethics code of the psychology and counseling organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran (PCOIRI). Ethics & Behavior, 2014. Vol. 24 (5), pp. 350—363. doi:10.1080/ 10508422.2013.845733
  45. Yong G. Revising the APA Ethics Code. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 315 p.
 
About PsyJournals.ru

© 2007–2020 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved

PsyJournals.ru in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository     Webometrics Ranking of Repositories

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????