Russian Psychological Issues PsyJournals.ru
OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice For AuthorsAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2007. Vol. 4, no. 4)

Psychology

Publisher: National Research University Higher School of Economics

ISSN: 1813-8918

Started in 2005

Published quarterly

 

Lifespan Cognition

Craik F.
Doctor of Psychology, Senior Scientist, Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
e-mail: fcraik@rotman-baycrest.on.ca

Bialystok E.
Associate Scientist, Rotman Research Institute (status only), Toronto, Canada
e-mail: ellenb@yorku.ca

Abstract
The development of cognitive abilities in children and the decline of these abilities in older adulthood have both been studied extensively, yet these two aspects of cognitive science exist in relative isolation from each other. To some extent this situation of mutual neglect reflects the point that the subareas have emphasized different aspects of cognition, but it is clear that a unified theory of lifespan cognitive development must provide continuous mechanisms underlying growth and decline. In this article we suggest a framework based on the concepts of representation and control. Cognitive representations are laid down in the course of development and remain relatively stable throughout adulthood, whereas cognitive control rises steeply in children and declines in old age. Performance of tasks involving perception, attention, memory, thinking and language reflects the interaction of these two major aspects of the overall cognitive system. Future challenges include mapping these cognitive constructs onto the underlying neurobiology.

Column: (null)

For Reference

References
  1. Baddeley A.D. Short­term and working memory // E. Tulving, F.I.M. Craik (eds.).The Oxford handbook of memory. Oxford University Press, 2000. Р. 77-92.
  2.   Baltes P.B., Lindenberger U. Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: A new window to the study of cognitive aging? // Psychol. Aging. 1997. Vol. 12. P. 12-21.
  3.   Baltes P.B. et al. Integration versus differentiation of fluid/crystallized intelligence in old age // Dev. Psychol. 1980. Vol. 16. P. 625-635.
  4.   Bauer P.J. Early memory development // U. Goswami (ed.). Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development. Blackwell, 2002. Р. 127-146.
  5.   Bialystok E. et al. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task // Psychol. Aging. 2004. Vol. 19. P. 290-303.
  6.   Bialystok E. et al. Dual modality monitoring in a classification task: The effects of bilingualism and aging // Q. J. Exp. Psychol­A (in press).
  7.   Bialystok E., Martin M.M. Attention and inhibition in bilingual children: Evidence from the dimensional change card sort task // Developmental Science. 2004. Vol. 7. P. 325-339.
  8.   Bialystok E., Shapero D. Ambiguous benefits: The effect of bilingualism on reversing ambiguous figures // Developmental Science. 2005. Vol. 8. P. 595-604.
  9.   Brainerd C.J., Reyna V.F. Gist is the grist: fuzzy­trace theory and the new intuitionism // Dev. Rev. 1990. Vol. 10. P. 3-47.
  10.   Braver T. S. et al. Context processing in older adults: Evidence for a theory relating cognitive control to neurobiology in healthy aging // J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 2001. Vol. 130. P. 746-763.
  11.   Burke D.M. et al. Theoretical appro­ aches to language and aging // T. Perfect, E. Maylor, (eds.). Models of cognitive aging. Oxford University Press, 2000. Р. 204-237.
  12.   Cabeza R. Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: The HAROLD model // Psychol. Aging. 2002. Vol. 17. P. 85-100.
  13.   Casey B.J. et al. Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development? // Trends Cogn. Sci. 2005. Vol. 9. P. 104-110.
  14.   Castel A.D. et al. The effects of action video game experience on the time course of inhibition of return and the efficiency of visual search // Acta Psychologica. 2005. Vol. 119. P. 217-230.
  15.   Colonia-Willner R. Practical intelligence at work: Relationship between aging and cognitive efficiency among managers in a bank environment // Psychol. Aging. 1998. Vol. 13. P. 45-57.
  16.   Craik F.I.M. Human memory and aging // M.L. Backman, C. von Hofsten, (eds.). Psychology at the turn of the millennium. Vol. 1. Psychology Press, 2002. Р. 261-280.
  17.   Daniels K. et al. The aging of executive functions // E. Bialystok, F.I.M. Craik (eds.). Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change. . Oxford University Press (in press).
  18.   Diamond A. Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: Cognitive functions, anatomy and biochemistry // D.T. Stuss, R.T Knight (eds.). Principles of frontal lobe function. Oxford University Press, 2002. Р. 466-503.
  19.   Diamond A. The early development of executive functions // E. Bialystok, F.I.M. Craik (eds.). Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change. . Oxford University Press (in press).
  20.   Engle R.W. et al. Individual differences in working memory capacity and what they tell us about controlled attention, general fluid intelligence and functions of the prefrontal cortex // A. Miyake, P. Shah (eds.). Models of working memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control. Cambridge University Press, 1999. Р. 102-134.
  21.   Fristoe N. et al. Examination of age-related deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test // Neuropsychology. 1997. Vol. 11. P. 428-436.
  22.   Giedd J.N. et al. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitu­ dinal MRI study // Nat. Neurosci. 1999. Vol. 2. P. 861-863.
  23.   Green C.S., Bavelier D. Action video game modifies visual selective attention // Nature. 2003. Vol. 423. P. 534-537.
  24.   Green D.W. Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system // Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 1998. Vol. 1. P. 67-81.
  25.   Hasher L. et al. Inhibitory control, circadian arousal, and age // D. Gopher, A. Koriat (eds.). Attention and performance XVII. Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application. MIT Press, 1999. Р. 653-675.
  26.   Hedden T et al. Contributions of processing ability and knowledge to verbal memory tasks across the adult life­span // Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 2005. Vol. 58A. P. 169-190.
  27.   Kemper S. Language in Adulthood // E. Bialystok, F.I.M. Craik (eds.). Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change. . Oxford University Press (in press).
  28.   Krampe R.T, Ericsson K.A. Maintaining excellence: Deliberate practice and elite performance in young and older pianists // J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 1996. Vol. 125. P. 331-359.
  29.   L'Hermitte F. Human autonomy and the frontal lobes. Part II: Patient behavior in complex and social situations: The «environmental dependency syndrome» // Ann. Neurol. 1986. Vol. 19. P. 335-343.
  30.   Li S-C. et al. Transformations in the couplings among intellectual abilities and constituent cognitive processes across the life span // Psychol. Sci. 2004. Vol. 15. P. 155-163.
  31.   Light L.L., Burke D.M. Patterns of language and memory in old age // L.L. Light, D.M. Burke (eds.). Language, memory, and aging. Cambridge University Press, 1988. Р. 244-271.
  32.   Lindenberger U., von Oertzen T. Variability in cognitive aging: From taxonomy to theory // E. Bialystok, F.I.M. Craik (eds.). Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change. . Oxford University Press (in press).
  33.   Mayr U. Age differences in the selection of mental sets: The role of inhibition, stimulus ambiguity, and response­set overlap // Psychol. Aging. 2001. Vol. 16. P. 96-109.
  34.   Mayr U. et al. Sequential and coordinative processing dynamics in figural transformations across the lifespan // Cognition. 1996. Vol. 59. P. 61-90.
  35.   Mechelli A. et al. Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain // Nature. 2004. 431. P. 757.
  36.   Meiran N., Gotler A. Modeling cognitive control in task switching and ageing // Europ. J. Cog. Psychol. 2001. Vol. 13. P. 165-186.
  37.   Mesulam M.M. The human frontal lobes: Transcending the default mode through contingent encoding // D.T. Stuss, R.T. Knight (eds.). Principles of frontal lobe function. Oxford University Press, 2002. Р. 8-30.
  38.   Mireles D.E., Charness N. Computational explorations of the influence of structured knowledge on age­related cognitive decline // Psychol. Aging. 2002. Vol. 17. P. 245-259.
  39.   Nelson K. Language in cognitive development: Emergence of the mediated mind. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  40.   Park D.C. et al. Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span // Psychol. Aging. 2002. Vol. 17. P. 299-320.
  41.   Polk T.A., Farah M.J. The neural development and organization of letter recognition: Evidence from functional neuroimaging, computational modelling, and behavioural studies // PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). 1998. Vol. 95. P. 847-852.
  42.   Posner M.I., Rothbart M.K. Influencing brain networks: Implications for education // Trends Cogn. Sci. 2005. Vol. 9. P. 99-103.
  43.   Raz N. Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: Integration of structural and functional findings // F.I.M. Craik, T.A. Salthouse (eds.). The handbook of aging and cognition. Erlbaum, 2000. Р. 1-90.
  44.   Reimers S., Maylor E. Task switching across the life span: Effects of age on general and specific switch costs // Dev. Psychol. 2005. Vol. 41. P. 611-671.
  45.   Rovee-Collier C. Dissociations in infant memory: Rethinking the development of implicit and explicit memory // Psychol. Rev. 1997. Vol. 104. P. 467-498.
  46.   Rubin O., Meiran N. On the origins of the task mixing cost in the cuing taskswitching paradigm // J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cog (in press).
  47.   Salthouse T.A., Mitchell D.R.D. Effects of age and naturally occurring experience on spatial visualization performance // Dev. Psychol. 1990. Vol. 26. P. 845-854.
  48.   Scribner S. Studying working intelligence // J. Lave, B. Rogoff (eds.). Everyday cognition: Its development in social context. Harvard University Press, 1984. Р. 9-40.
  49.   Stiles J. et al. Exploring developmental change in the neural bases of higher cognitive functions: The promise of functional magnetic resonance imaging // Dev. Neuropsychol. 2003. Vol. 24. P. 641-668.
  50.   West R.L. An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging // Psychol. Bull. 1996. Vol. 120. P. 272-292.
  51.   Wingfield A., Stine'Morrow E.A.L. Language and speech // F.I.M. Craik, T.A. Salthouse (eds.). The Handbook of Aging and Cognition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2000. Р. 359-416.
  52.   Zelazo P.D. et al. Executive function across the lifespan // Acta Psychologica. 2004. Vol. 115. P. 167-183.
  53.   Zelinski E.M., Lewis K.L. Adult age differences in multiple cognitive functions: Differentiation, dedifferentiation, or processspecific change? // Psychol. Aging. 2003. Vol. 18. P. 727-745.
 
About PsyJournals.ru

© 2007–2020 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved

PsyJournals.ru in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????