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  Previous issue (2021. Vol. 10, no. 2)

Clinical Psychology and Special Education

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (online): 2304-0394


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 2012

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


A Dual-System Model of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Interplay of the Social-Rank and Affiliation Biopsychosocial Systems 209


Gilboa-Schechtman E.
PhD in Psychology, Director of Clinical Training, Head of Emotional Processing Laboratory, Department of Psychology and Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Center, Bar Ilan University, Israel

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition. Although effective treatments exist, their success is limited. This narrative review seeks to advance a comprehensive understanding of the types of social threat affecting individuals with SAD from the perspective of two basic biobehavioral systems: affiliation and social-rank. We argue that SAD is associated with vulnerability to events signaling loss of affiliation (exclusion) and of social-rank (defeat). Specifically, we suggest that SAD is characterized by (a) hyper-reactivity to exclusion and defeat; (b) propensity to respond to exclusion by deploying distancing and withdrawal strategies; (c) propensity to respond to defeat by deploying conflict-reducing subordination strategies; and (d) enhanced linkage of the two systems. This dual-system account may help integrate clinically significant information about SAD and offer recommendations regarding novel theory-based directions for treatments.

Keywords: dominance, belongingness, social anxiety, exclusion, defeat, depression, social stress

Column: Theoretical research


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