«The Leonardo's Laboratory»: an Education Program for Children with Academic Difficulties Gifted in the Field of Visual-Spatial Abilities 994
Clinical Psychologist, Yale University (USA)
Head of Eli Whitney Museum, New-Haven, USA
Clinical Psychologist, Yale University (USA)
Laboratory Assistant, Yale University (USA)
PhD Student, Syracuse University
PhD in Psychology, Seattle, USA
Head of Centre for Excellence in Learning and Training (CELT), Tufts University (USA)
Dean of School of Arts and Sciences, Tufts University (USA)
Doctor of Psychology, Leading Scientist, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia
Twice exceptional children with coexisting special talents in one area and learning disabilities in other areas represent a particular segment of students who require a complex support. Previous studies with such students were done using mostly the method of individual cases analysis and participants were mainly students with high IQ, but without any special talents in other areas. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis about the positive impact of an experimental educational program that emphasizes the strong sides of the students and the development of targeted educational skills and their level, as well as self-esteem of students. The study involved 30 school age children with a high level of development of visual-spatial abilities. The results show a significant improvement in organizational skills (based on feedback from parents) and in self-esteem of students (based both on the students’ self-report and feedback from parents).
Keywords: giftedness, learning disabilities, academic underachievement, educational programs, organizational skills, visual-spatial abilities, “twice exceptional” children.
Column: Perspectives of inclusive education
- Aaron, P. G., Joshi, R. M., Ocker, E. S. (2004). Up the spirits from
the vast deep: LD and Giftedness in historic persons. In T. M. Newman and R. J.
Sternberg (Eds.) Students with both gifts and learning disabilities:
Identification, assessment, and outcomes (pp. 199–124). New York: Kluwer
Academic/ Plenum Publishers.
- Baldwin, A. Y., (1999). Learning disability: The mysterious mask –
The USA perspective. In A. Y. Baldwin, W. Vialle (Eds.). The many faces of
giftedness (pp. 103–134). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
- Baum, S. (1988). An enrichment program for gifted learning disabled
students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 226–230.
- Baum, S. M. (Ed.). (2004). Twice-exceptional and special populations of
gifted students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Baum, S. M., Cooper, C. R., Neu, T. W. (2001). Dual differentiation:
An approach for meeting the curricular needs of gifted students with learning
disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 477–490.
- Bees, C. (1998). The GOLD program: A program for gifted learning
disabled adolescents. Roeper Review, 21, 155–161.
- Bianco, M. (2005). The effects of disability labels on special
education and general education teachers’ referrals for gifted programs.
Learning Disability Quarterly, 28, 285–293.
- Brody, L. E., Mills, C. J. (1997). Gifted children with learning
disabilities: A review of the issues. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30,
- Butler, D. L. (1998). The strategic content learning approach to
promoting self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman, D. Schunk (Eds.).
Developing self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice
(pp. 160–183). N. Y.: Guilford Press.
- Cattell, R. B., Cattell, A. K. (1961). Culture Fair Intelligence
Test - Scale II. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability
- Corno, L. (1993). The best laid plans: Modern conception of volition
and educational research. Educational Researcher, 22, 14–22.
- Cooper, C. R., Baum, S. M., Neu, T. W. (2004). Developing scientific
talent in students with students with special needs: An alternative model for
identification, curriculum, and assessment. The Journal of Secondary Gifted
Education, 15, 162–169.
- Crawford, S., Snart, F. (1994). Process-based remediation of
decoding in gifted LD students: Three case studies. Roeper Review, 16,
- Cunningham, A. E., Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Assessing print
exposure and orthographic processing skill in children: A quick measure of
reading experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 733– 740.
- Dix, J., Schafer, S. (2005). From paradox to performance: Practical
strategies for identifying and teaching Gifted/LD students. In S. K. Johnsen,
J. Kendrick (Eds.), Teaching gifted students with disabilities (pp. 153-159).
Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
- Dole, S. (2000). The implications of the risk and resilience
literature for gifted students with learning disabilities. Roeper Review, 23,
- Garcia-Sanchez, J. N., Fidalgo-Redondo, R. (2006). Effects of two
types of self regulatory instruction programs on students with learning
disabilities in writing products, processes, and self-efficacy. Learning
Disability Quarterly, 29, 181–211.
- Gayan, J., Olson, R. K. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences
on orthographic and phonological skills in children with reading disabilities.
Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 483–507.
- Harris, K. R., Reid, R. R., Graham, S. (2004). Self-regulation among
students with LD and ADHD. In B. Wong (Ed.). Learning about learning
disabilities, 3rd ed. (pp. 167–195). San Diego, CA: Elsevier
- Hua, C. B. (2002). Career self-efficacy of the student who is
gifted/learning disabled: A case study. Journal for the Education of the
Gifted, 25, 375–404.
- Johnsen, S. K., Kendrick, J. (Eds.). (2005). Teaching gifted
students with disabilities. Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
- Kalbfleisch, M. L., Iguchi, C. M. (2008). Twice-exceptional
learners. In J. A. Plucker, C. M. Callahan (Eds.), Critical issues and
practices in gifted education: What the research says (Vol. 707–719). Waco,
TX: Prufrock Press.
- Mann, R. L. (2006). Effective teaching strategies for
gifted/learning-disabled students with spatial strengths. The Journal of
Secondary Gifted Education, 17, 112–121.
- McBride-Chang, C., Manis, F. R., Seidenberg, M. S., Custodio, R.
G., Doi, L. M. (1993). Print exposure as a predictor of word reading and
reading comprehension in disabled and nondisabled readers. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 85, 230-238.
- Neilsen, M. E., Mortoff-Albert, S. (1989). The effects of special
education service on the self-concept and school attitude of learning
disabled/gifted students. Roeper Review, 12, 29–36.
- Olson, R. K., Forsberg, H., Wise, B., Rack, J. (1994). Measurement
of word recognition, orthographic, and phonological skills, In G. R. Lyon
(Ed.), Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New
views on measurement issues (pp. 243–277). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
- Shevitz, B., Weinfeld, R., Jeweler, S., Barnes-Robinson, L. (2003).
Mentoring empowers gifted/ learning disabled students to soar! Roeper Review,
- Thrailkill, C. (2005). Patrick’s story: A gifted/ learning-disabled
child. In S. K. Johnsen, J. Kendrick (Eds.), Teaching gifted students with
disabilities (pp. 99-103). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
- Trainin, G., Swanson, H. L. (2005). Cognition, metacognition, and
achievement of college students with learning disabilities. Learning
Disability Quarterly, 28, 261-262.
- Turk, T. N., Campbell, D. A. (2005). What's wrong with Doug? The
academic struggles and triumphs of a gifted student with ADHD from preschool to
college In S. K. Johnsen, J. Kendrick (Eds.), Teaching gifted students with
disabilities (pp. 105-141). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
- Volker, M. A., Lopata, C., Cook-Cottone, C. (2006). Assessment of
children with intellectual giftedness and reading disabilities. Psychology in
the Schools, 43, 855–869.
- VonKarolyi, C., Winner, E. (2004). Dyslexia and visual-spatial
talents: Are they connected? In T. M. New-man, R. J. Sternberg (Eds.) Students
with both gifts and learning disabilities: Identification, assessment, and
outcomes (pp. 95–118). New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers.
- Weinfeld, R., Barnes-Robinson, L., Jeweler, S., Shevitz, B. (2002).
Academic programs for gifted and talented/learning disabled students. Roeper
Review, 24, 226–233.
- Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock-Johnson
III Tests of Achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.