What Kind of Blending Makes Blended Learning? 2270
The paper focuses on blended learning which is now quite common both in basic and in higher education and which is usually defined as a combination of e-learning and face-to-face instruction. The author explores the main models of blended learning in basic education (K-12), evaluates their benefits and limitations, and reflects on the changes in the current model of teaching activity and standards for teachers. The paper also presents a review of modern studies on the effectiveness of blended learning as compared to distance learning and traditional in-class education. As it is revealed, the role of blended learning is that of a ‘hybrid’ educational innovation which interlocks the past and the future in education.
Allen I.E., Seama J. Class Differences [Elektronnyi
resurs]: Online Education in the United States. Newburyport, MA: Babson Survey
Research Group; Sloan Consortium, 2010. 30 p. Available at: https://
files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529952.pdf (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Benard B. Resiliency: What We Have Learned. San
Francisco, Calif: WestEd, 2004. 148 p.
Bergmann J., Sams A. Flipped learning: gateway to student
engagement. Moorabbin, Victoria: Hawker Brownlow, 2015. 169 p.
Bishop J.L., Verleger M.A. The flipped classroom: A survey
of the research. ASEE National Conference Proceedings, Atlanta, GA.
2013. Vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1—18.
Blended Learning 101 [Elektronnyi resurs]: Handbook /
College for Certain. [Oakland, CA]: ASPIRE Public Schools, 2010. 70 p.
Available at: http://www.blendmylearning.com/wp-content/uploads/
et_temp/aspire-blended-learning-handbook-2013.pdf (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Bailey J. et al. Blended learning implementation guide
2.0. In Bailey J., Schneider C., Ark T.V. Navigating the Digital Shift:
Implementation Strategies for Blended and Online Learning. [S. l.]: Digital
Learning Now, 2013, pp. 15—78.
Christensen H.C., Horn M., Staker H. Is K-12
Blended Learning Disruptive? [Elektronnyi resurs]: An Introduction to the
Theory of Hybrids. [Lexington, MA]: Clayton Christensen Institute for
Disruptive Information, 2013. 48 p. Available at:
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ ED566878.pdf (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Clark R. Reconsidering research on learning from media.
Review of educational research, 1983. Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 449—454.
Cuban L. Computers Meet Classroom: Classroom Wins.
Teachers College Record, 1993. Vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 185—210.
Cuban L. Oversold and Underused: Computers in the
Classrooms. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001. 250 p.
Rogers P. et al. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Distance
Learning. Hershey; New York: Information Science Reference, 2009. 2612 p.
Means B. et al. Evaluation of Evidence — based Practices
in Online Education [Elektronnyi resurs]: A Meta- Analysis and Review of Online
Learning Studies. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Education, 2010, 94 p.
Fullan M., Donnelly K. Alive in the Swamp: Assessing
Digital Innovations in Education. London: Nesta, 2013. 40 p.
Gates B. Teachers need real feedback [Elektronnyi resurs]:
[Video] // TED. Available at: https://www.ted.
com/talks/bill_gates_teachers_need_real_feedback (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Graham C. Blended Learning Systems: Definition, Current
Trends, and Future Directions. In Bonk C.J., Graham C.R. The Handbook of
Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. San Francisco:
Pfeiffer, 2006, pp. 3—26.
Greaves T. Revolutionizing Education through Technology:
The Project RED roadmap for transformation. Eugene, Or.: International Society
for Technology in Education, 2012. 114 p.
Halverson R., Smith A. How Technologies Have (and Have
Not) Changed Teaching and Learning in Schools. Journal of Computing in
Teacher Education, 2009. Vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 48—53.
Higgins S., Xiao Z., Katsipataki M. The Impact of
educational Technology on Learning: A Summary for the Education Endowment
Foundation: Full report. [S. l.]: School of Education; Durham University, 2012.
International Society for Technology in Education. ISTE
[Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https://www.iste. org/ (Accessed:
Khan Academy [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2011. Available at:
https://www.khanacademy.org (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Khan S. Let’s use video to reinvent education [Elektronnyi
resurs]: [Video]. TED. 2011. Available at:
Larry Cuban on School Reform and Classroom Practice
[Elektronnyi resurs]. Available at: https:// larrycuban.wordpress.com/
McNeil B.J. A metaanalysis of interactive video
instruction: A ten-year review of achievement effects. Ann Arbor: University of
Idaho, 1989. 137 p.
National Education Association [Elektronnyi resurs]: Great
Public Schools for Every Student. Available at: www.nea.org (Accessed:
Reimaging Teaching in a Blended Classroom [Elektronnyi
resurs]: Working paper. TNTP: Reimagine Teaching. 2014. 18 p. Available
at: https://tntp. org/assets/documents/TNTP_Blended_Learning_
WorkingPaper_2014.pdf (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Rogers E. Diffusion of Innovations. Fourth Edition. New
York: The Free Press, 2010. 518 p.
Rooney J.E. Blending learning opportunities to enhance
educational programming and meetings. Association Management, 2003, vol.
55, no. 5, pp. 26— 32.
Russell T.L. The no significant difference phenomenon: A
comparative research annotated bibliography on technology for distance
education: As reported in 355 research reports, summaries and papers. North
Carolina State University. [S. l.]: IDECC, . 119 p.
Staker H., Horn M. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning
[Elektronnyi resurs]. [San Mateo, CA]: Innosight Institute, 2012. 22 p.
Available at: https://eric. ed.gov/?id=ED535180 (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
OECD. Students, Computers and Learning: Making the
Connection: Making the Connection. Paris: PISA; OECD Publishing, 2015. 204 p.
Staker H. et al. The rise of K-12 blended learning
[Elektronnyi resurs]: Profiles of emerging models. [San Mateo, CA]: Innosight
institute, 2011. 184 p. Available at:
Thompson C. How Khan Academy is changing the rules of
education [Elektronnyi resurs]. Wired Magazine, 2011. Vol. 126, pp. 1—5.
Available at: http:// resources.rosettastone.com/CDN/us/pdfs/K-12/Wired_
KhanAcademy.pdf (Accessed: 18.05.2018).
Zhao Y. et al. What makes a difference? A practical
analysis of research on the effectiveness of distance education. Teacher
College Record, 2005. Vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 1836—1884. doi:10.1111/j.1467-
Young J.R. «Hybrid» teaching seeks to end the divide
between traditional and online instruction. Chronicle Of Higher
Education, 2002. Vol. 48, no. 28, pp. 33–34.