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Psychological Science and Education

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 1814-2052

ISSN (online): 2311-7273


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 1996

Published 6 times a year

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Open Access Journal


The Finnish Education as an Individualized Service System with a Reference to Students with Special Educational Needs 250


Hautamäki Ja.
Doctor of Psychology, Emeritus Professor Faculty of Behavioral Sciences, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland

Podolskiy A.I
Doctor of Psychology, Professor of Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

The paper deals with some educational aspects of going to school in Finland concerning students with special educational needs/services. We proceed from empirical observation. Then, the general context is given to interpret the data and extend the observed added value of individualized educational support. The latter, in its turn, requires the identification of a special need and the existence of suitable educational options. These two pieces of information need to match optimally: early birds get the biggest harvest, and even if special education is never too late, the service needs become more challenging and the solutions — more expensive. The core of this complicated dual process is the decision making with more or less complete information of both the needs and the available palette of educational actions. The fundamental dilemma is to navigate between two poles: if a pupil is left out by such educational measures which could have helped him/her to become a full member of society and economy, we have a moral problem. If the economical-educational complex is not providing the best research-supported educational tools, we also have a pedagogical problem. However, it is not universally proved that full integration is the best way; neither is it proved that we need an entire set of segregated and specialized schools for several different kinds of special needs.

Keywords: special educational needs, school education reform, individual educational support

Column: Educational Psychology


For Reference

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  4. Hienonen N. Does class placement matter? Students with special educational needs in regular and special classes. Helsinki Studies in Education 87/2020. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2020. 120 p.
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  8. Vainikainen M.-P., Gustavson N., Koivuhovi S., Hautamäki J. The development of learning outcomes during the first four years in primary school. In Vainikainen M.-P., Rämä I., Hautamäki J. (Eds.). Learning-to-Learn in Helsinki City. A 9-year follow up. Helsinki: Helsinki Studies in Education, 2021, in print.
  9. Vainikainen M.P., Hautamäki J. Three Studies on Learning to Learn in Finland: Anti-Flynn Effects 2001— 2017. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 2020, pp.1—16. DOI: 10.1080/00313831.2020.1833240
  10. Vainikainen M.-P., Rimpelä A. Nuorten kehitysympäristö muutoksessa. Peruskoulujen oppimistulokset ja oppilaiden hyvinvointi eriytyvällä Helsingin seudulla [The Contexts for Development are Changing: Learning Outcomes and Well-Being in Segregating Metropolitan Helsinki] Helsinki Studies in Education 363. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2015. 142 p.
  11. Vainikainen M.P., Thuneberg H., Greiff S., Hautamäki J. Multiprofessional collaboration in Finnish schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 2015. Vol. 72, pp. 137—148.
  12. Vainikainen M.P., Thuneberg H., Marjanen J., Hautamäki J., Kupiainen S., Hotulainen R. How do Finns know? Educational monitoring without inspection and standard setting. Standard Setting in Education. Springer, Cham, 2017, pp. 243—259.

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