Empathic Behavior in Early Childhood under Condition of Taking the Mom’s Role in the Play 551
Seniour Lecturer of Department of general psychology of School for Public Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
Following the modern theoretical and empirical data on the problem of relation between the role-taking and empathy abilities we supposed that empathic behavior in early childhood could be realized through acquiring the role “mom” within the role playing. In order to test our suppose we have conducted the ingroup experiment with 36 toddlers (M=35 months) and compared the frequency of the empathic behavior under two conditions: 1) taking the role of mom and 2) taking the role of friend by the toddler withing the experimental story-play with toys. According to our hypothesis we expected that children would display the empathic behavior more frequent in the condition of taking the mom’s role. Our hypothesis was not confirmed since the difference between conditions has been not significant. Such results reveal that the parental models do not serve significant mediating role in the child’s learning of prosocial behavior.
- Avdeeva N.N. Ponyatie identifikatsii i ego primenenie k probleme ponimaniya
cheloveka chelovekom [Concept of identification and its application to the
problem of mutual understanding between people]. In Bodalev A.A. (ed.),
Teoreticheskie i prikladnye problemy psikhologii poznaniya lyud'mi drug druga
[Theoretical and applied problems in psychology of understanding each other].
Krasnodar: Kubanskii universitet, 1975, pp. 6—9.
- Bandura A. Teoriya sotsial'nogo naucheniya: Per. s angl [Theory of social
learning]. Saint Petersburg.: Evraziya, 2000. 322 p. (in Russ.).
- Zakharov A.I. Psikhologicheskie osobennosti vospriyatiya det'mi roli
roditelei [Psychological features in a child’s perception of the parental
role]. Voprosy psikhologii [Questions of psychology], 1982, no. 1, pp.
- Zaharov A.I. Prinyatie det'mi roli roditelei v zavisimosti ot kharaktera
semeinykh otnoshenii [Taking the parental role in different family types] In
Bodalev A.A. (ed.), Voprosy psikhologii poznaniya lyud'mi drug druga i
obshcheniya [Problems of mutual perception and communication]. Krasnodar:
Kubanskii universite, 1978, pp.133-138.
- Mukhina V.S. Vozrastnaya psikhologiya [Developmental psychology]. Moscow:
Publ. tsentr «Akademiya», 1999. 456 p.
- El'konin D.B. Psikhologiya igry [Psychology of a play]. Moscow: Pedagogika,
1978. 560 p.
- Batson C.D., Shaw L. L. Evidence for altruism: Toward a pluralism of
prosocial motives. Psychological inquiry, 1991. Vol. 2, no.2, pp. 107–122.
- Batson C. D. Altruism in humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Batson C.D., Early S., Salvarani G. Perspective taking: Imagining how
another feels versus imaging how you would feel. Personality and social
psychology bulletin, 1997. Vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 751–758.
- Dunfield K., Kuhlmeier V., O’Connell L., Kelley E. Examining the Diversity
of Prosocial Behavior: Helping, Sharing, and Comforting in Infancy. Infancy,
2011. Vol. 16 (3), pp. 227–247.
- Eisenberg, N., Miller P. The relation of empathy to prosocial and related
behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 1987. Vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 91–119.
- Eisenberg N., Strayer J. Empathy and its development. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1987. 406p.
- Feldman R. Mother-infant synchrony and the development of moral orientation
in childhood and adolescence: Direct and indirect mechanisms of developmental
continuity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2007. Vol. 77, no. 4, pp.
582-597. doi: 10.1037/0002-94184.108.40.2062
- Feshbach N. D. Studies of empathic behavior in children. Progress in
experimental personality research, 1978, no. 8, pp. 1-47.
- Flavell J. H. Cognitive development: Children's knowledge about the mind.
Annual review of psychology, 1999. Vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 21–45
- Flavell J. H. Development of children's knowledge about the mental world.
International journal of behavioral development, 2000. Vol. 24, no.1, pp.
- Hoffman M. Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its
implications for altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology, 1975. Vol.
11, no. 5, pp. 607–622.
- Hoffman M. L. Empathy and prosocial behavior. In Lewis M. (eds.), Handbook
of emotions . New York: Guilford Press., pp. 440–455.
- Jackson P., Meltzoff A., Decety J. Neural circuits involved in imitation
and perspective-taking. NeuroImage. 2006. Vol. 31, no.1, pp. 429–439.
- Iannotti R. J. Naturalistic and structured assessments of prosocial
behavior in preschool children: The influence of empathy and perspective
taking. Developmental Psychology, 1985. Vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 46–52.
- Mikulincer M., Gillath O., Halevy V., Avihou N., Avidan S., Eshkoli N.
Attachment theory and reactions to others’ needs: Evidence that activation of
the sense of attachment security promotes empathic responses. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 2001. Vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 1205–1224.
- Selman R. L. Taking another's perspective: Role-taking development in early
childhood. Child development, 1971, no. 3, pp. 1721–1734.
- Van der Mark I., van IJzendoorn M., Bakermans-Kranenburg M. Development of
empathy in girls during the second year of life: Associations with parenting,
attachment, and temperament. Social Development, 2002. Vol. 11, no. 6, pp.