Russian Psychological Issues
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice For AuthorsAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2020. Vol. 11, no. 2)

Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)

Included in Scopus

Social Psychology and Society

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2221-1527

ISSN (online): 2311-7052


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 2010

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


Designing the rules of the online discussion: the role of “likes” 201

Radina N.K.
Doctor of Political Science, PhD in Psychology, professor at the Department of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia

The article is dedicated to a study in the subject field of virtual digital communication. The intentional constituent of online interaction marked by “likes” (“thumbs up”), which represent non-verbal signs of approval typical of digital communication) was examined on the material of online discussions on politics and international relations. The research in question has been based on the materials of 2015: 302 online discussions comprising 27901 comments on infovenues such as,, Polit. Ru. The intentional analysis has been performed with the use of quantitative intent-analysis method of conflict political discourse by T.N. Ushakova and N.D. Pavlova modified by N.K. Radina. Consequently, the count of “likes” (“thumbs up”) given by participants of the discussion for a specific comment, which means that they were given for an intention, followed. There has been made a supposition that the “likes” (“thumbs up”) are intertwined with the communicative interactions in the online discussion which are typical (most frequent) in online cooperation. As a result, the study revealed that the “likes” (“thumbs up”) fortify the asymmetrical relations between the author of the comment and the Others (the author of the article, other authors of comments as well as third party actors). The participants of the discussion rival with the authors of the comments and the authors of the articles while seeking recognition with the “third party actors”. The “likes” (“thumbs up”) prove to be a tool for fortification of intentional scenarios of online communication as well as legitimization of constructed rules of digital interaction. Hence, the hypothesis has been confirmed. It has been supposed that virtual digital communication implies intermittent construction of rules for every digital community for a unique situation of interaction whereas the “likes” (“thumbs up”) serve as an instrument for securing constructed norms.

Keywords: virtual digital communication, rules of digital interaction, online discussion, “likes”

Column: Empirical Research


For Reference


The research was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of the scientific project № 16-06-00184-A.



1.                   Avdeeva I.A. Osobennosti virtual’noi kommunikatsii i organizatsii virtual’nykh soobshchestv v global’nom prostranstve global’noi seti [Features of virtual communication and organization of virtual communities in the global space of the global network]. Filosofiya i obshchestvo [Philosophy and Society], 2016, no. 4, pp. 20—33.

2.                   Belinskaya E.P. Internet i identifikatsionnye struktury lichnosti [Internet and identity structures of the personality] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi internet-konferentsii Sotsial’nye i psikhologicheskie posledstviya primeneniya informatsionnykh tekhnologii (informatsionno-obrazovatel’nyi portal “Auditorium” 01.02.2001 — 01.05.2001). [Theses of the international educational information conference “Social and psychological consequences of the use of information technology”] URL: http://banderus2. (Accessed: 25.08.2018).

3.                   Bondarenko S.V. Sotsial’naya struktura virtual’nykh setevykh soobshchestv = Social structure virtual network communities [Social structure of virtual network communities = Social structure virtual network communities]. Rostov n/D.: Publ. Rostovskogo universitetata, 2004. 320 p.

4.                   Voiskunskii A.E. Informatsionnaya bezopasnost’: psikhologicheskie aspekty [Information security: psychological aspects]. Natsional’nyi psikhologicheskii zhurnal [National Psychological Journal], 2010, no. 1 (3), pp. 48—53.

5.                   Voiskunskii A.E., Naftul’ev A.I. Aktual’nye psikhologicheskie problemy kiber-etiki [Actual psychological problems of cyber ethics]. Gumanitarnaya informatika [Humanitarian Informatics]. Tomsk: Publ. Tomsk University, , 2007. Iss. 3, pp. 31—39.

6.                   Goroshko E.I. Sovremennye internet-kommunikatsii: struktura i osnovnye kharakteristiki [Modern Internet communications: structure and main characteristics]. In T.N. Kolokol’tseva, O. V. Lutovinova (ed). Internet-kommunikatsiya kak novaya rechevaya formatsiya [Internet communication as a new speech formation]. Moscow: Nauka; Flinta, 2012. pp. 9—52.

7.                   Gurin K.E. Struktury vzaimodeistviya pol’zovatelei pri obsuzhdenii media-kontenta onlain-soobshchestv SMI [User interaction structures when discussing the media content of online media communities]. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Udmurt University], 2016, Vol. 26, Iss. 2, pp. 18—27.

8.                   Drobotenko O.A. Igrovaya sotsial’nost’: pravila i ritualy virtual’noi kommunikatsii [Gaming sociality: rules and rituals of virtual communication]. Uchenye zapiski Tavricheskogo natsional’nogo universiteta im. V.I. Vernadskogo. Seriya “Filosofiya. Kul’turologiya. Politologiya. Sotsiologiya” [Scientific notes of the Tavrida National University. IN AND. Vernadsky. Series “Philosophy. Culturology. Political science. Sociology”], 2010, Vol. 23 (62), no. 1, pp. 127—131.

9.                   Il’ina I.A. Problemy izucheniya i vospriyatiya giperteksta v mul’timediinoi srede internet: Avtoref. diss. kand. filol. nauk [Problems of studying and perception of hypertext in the multimedia Internet environment. PhD (Philology) Thesis]. Moscow, 2009. 20 p.

10.               Kushnareva I. Ko vsemu pridelat’ laiki [To make it all to the likes]. LOGOS [LOGOS], 2012, no. 2 (86), pp. 3—9.

11.               Boites’, chto privlekut za ekstremizm v internete, — chto delat’? Pamyatka [Afraid that they will attract for extremism on the Internet, — what to do? Instructions]. Moscow: Informatsionno-analiticheskii tsentr Sova, 2016. 24 p.

12.               Loseva N. Auditoriya novykh media [Audience of new media]. In Balmaeva S., Lukina M. (ed.), Kak novye media izmenili zhurnalistiku. 2012—2016 [How New Media Changed Journalism. 2012—2016]. Ekaterinburg: Gumanitarnyi universitet, 2016, pp. 31—85.

13.               Lutovinova O.V. Lingvokul’turologicheskie kharakteristiki virtual’nogo diskursa [Linguistic and cultural characteristics of virtual discourse]. Volgograd: Peremena, 2009. 476 p.

14.               Mal’kova E.Yu. Eticheskie problemy virtual’noi kommunikatsii. Avtopef. diss. kand. filos. nauk [Ethical problems of virtual communication. PhD (Philosophy) Thesis]. Saint- Petersburg, 2004. 24 p.

15.               Mikhailov V.A., Mikhailov S.V. Osobennosti razvitiya informatsionno-kommunikativnoi sredy sovremennogo obshchestva [Features of the development of the information and communication environment of modern society]. Aktual’nye problemy teorii kommunikatsii: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Actual problems of the theory of communication: a collection of scientific works]. Saint-Petersburg: Publ. SPbGPU, 2004. p. 34—52.

16.               Mikheev E.A., Nestik T.A. Disinformation in social networks: current state and perspective research directions. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society], 2018. Vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 5—20. doi:10.17759/sps.2018090201. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

17.               Oleshkov M.Yu. Modelirovanie kommunikativnogo protsessa [Modeling of the communicative process]. Nizhnii Tagil: Publ. NTGSPA, 2006. 336 p.

18.               Pogodina A.V., Esaulova K.S. Socially bold personality in the real communication and Internet communication: the analysis of representations of people of the different age. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society], 2017. Vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 38—55. doi:10.17759/sps.2017080103. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

19.               Pustovalov A.V. Krupneishie gazety SShA v sotsial’noi seti “Facebook” [The largest US newspapers in the social network “Facebook”]. Materialy vtoroi mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Zhurnalistika v kommunikativnoi kul’ture sovremennosti: novye zhurnalisty dlya novykh media». (Novosibirsk, 31.10.2012 — 1.11.2012) [Proceedings of the Second International Scientific and Practical Conference “Journalism in the communicative culture of our time: new journalists for new media”]. Novosibirsk, 2012, pp. 80—83.

20.               Radina N.K. Intent-analiz online-diskussii (na primere kommentirovaniya materialov internet-portala [Elektronnyi resurs] [The content analysis of online discussions (on the example of commenting on the materials of the Internet portal]. Mediaskop [MediaScope], 2016, no. 4. URL: http://www.mediascope. ru/2238 (Accessed: 25.08.2018).

21.               Radina N.K. Tsifrovaya politicheskaya mobilizatsiya onlain-kommentatorov materialov SMI o politike i mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniyakh [Digital political mobilization of online media commentators on politics and international relations]. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya [Policy. Political Studies], 2018, no. 2, pp. 115—129.

22.               Rykov Yu.G. Virtual’noe soobshchestvo kak sotsial’noe pole: neravenstvo i kommunikativnyi kapital [Virtual community as a social field: inequality and communicative capital]. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsial’noi antropologii [Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology], 2013, Vol. XVI, no. 4 (69), pp. 44—60.

23.               Rykov Yu.G. Oblast’ internet-issledovanii v sotsial’nykh naukakh [The field of Internet research in the social sciences]. Sotsiologicheskoe obozrenie [Sociological Review], 2017. Vol. 16, no. 3 (16), pp. 366—394.

24.               Smirnova E.O., Matushkina N.Yu., Smirnova S.Yu. Virtual reality in early and preschool childhood. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2018, Vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 42—53. doi:10.17759/pse.2018230304 (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).

25.               Slovo v deistvii: intent-analiz politicheskogo diskursa [The word in action: the intent analysis of political discourse]. Ushakova T.N., Pavlova N.D. (ed). Saint-Petersburg: Aletejya, 2000. 316 p.

26.               Televnoi A.D., Khlopotov M.V. Issledovanie tematicheskikh profilei i sposobov rascheta vovlechennosti auditorii v soobshchestvakh sotsial’noi seti “Vkontakte” [Elektronnyi resurs] [Study of thematic profiles and ways of calculating audience involvement in the communities of the social network “VKontakte”]. Vestnik Evraziiskoi nauki [Bulletin of the Eurasian Science], 2018, no. 2. URL: (Accessed: 01.08.2018).

27.               Tsykunov I., Danilova E. Intent-analiz tolerantnosti v federal’nykh i regional’nykh pechatnykh izdaniyakh [Elektronnyi resurs] [Intent-analysis of tolerance in federal and regional print media]. Pravo znat’: istoriya, teoriya, praktika [The right to know: history, theory, practice], 2003, no. 1—2 (73—74). URL: pravo/2003_73_74(1_2)/cikunov_1_2.html (Accessed: 22.08.2017).

28.               Cherkashina A. “VKONTAKTE kniga”: sozdaem pozitivnyi kontent [“VKontakte book”: create positive content]. Bibliotechnoe delo [Librarianship], 2017, no. 15 (297), pp. 20—22.

29.               Chistyakov A.V. Sotsializatsiya lichnosti v obshchestve internet-kommunikatsii: sotsiokul’turnyi analiz. Avtopef. diss. dokt. sotsiol. nauk [Socialization of the personality in the society of Internet communications: socio-cultural analysis. Dr. Sci. (Sociology) Thesis]. Rostov-on-Don, 2006. 58 p.

30.               Austin J.L. How to Do Things with Words. 2d ed. In Sbisà M., Urmson J.O. (ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. 174 p.

31.               Badawy A.-H.A. Students’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Discussion Boards: What can we get from our students for a freebie point? International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 2012. Vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 136—144.

32.               Bushelow E.E. Facebook Pages and Benefits to Brands. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 2012. Vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 5—20.

33.               Coulter K.S., Roggeveen A. “«Like it or not»: Consumer responses to word-of-mouth communication in on-line social networks”. Management Research Review, 2012. Vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 878—899.

34.               Layng J.M. The Virtual Communication Aspect: A Critical Review of Virtual Studies Over the Last 15 Years. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 2016. Vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 173— 218.

35.               McPartland M.D. An Analysis of Facebook “Likes” and Other Nonverbal Internet Communication Under the Federal Rules of Evidence. Iowa Law Review, 2013. Vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 445—470.

36.               Miyazoe T., Anderson T. Anonymity in Blended Learning: Who Would You Like to Be? Educational Technology & Society, 2011. Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 175—187.

37.               Morozov E. The NET delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. New York PublicAffairs, 2011. 394 p.

38.               Sherman L. E., Michikyan, M., Greenfield, P. M. The effects of text, audio, video, and in-person communication on bonding between friends [Elektronnyi resurs]. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2013. Vol. 7, no. 2. URL: (Accessed: 01.08.2018).

39.               Sveningsson M. “I don’t like it and I think it’s useless, people discussing politics on Facebook”: Young Swedes’ understandings of social media use for political discussion [Elektronnyi resurs]. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2014. Vol. 8, no. 3. URL: (Accessed: 01.08.2018).

40.               Utz S., Muscanell N. Social Media and Social Capital: Introduction to the Special Issue. Societies, 2015, no. 5, pp. 420—424.


© 2007–2020 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository     Webometrics Ranking of Repositories

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????