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The Program of Correction of School Disadaptation of Primary School Children by Means 61
Recently, an increasingly urgent problem of the modern school, uniting the efforts of psychologists and teachers, is the problem of social disadaptation, as a phenomenon that prevents the full-fledged personal development of a student, his socialization and complicates the educational process. Everywhere there is an increase in the number of children in school with signs of social disadaptation, expressed in an inadequate form of orientation of the child in school life (in the position of a school-boy) and in educational activities, in unproductive cooperation with adults and peers, in a weak level of ability to self-regulation of their activities, school failure, a high level of school anxiety, aggressiveness and negative emotional attitude towards school. Along with the obvious manifestations of social disadaptation, its early signs are widespread, such as increased school anxiety, overestimated or low self-esteem, decreased learning motivation against the background of good academic performance and discipline, which, due to their “veiledness”, are often not attracted to themselves the attention of teachers and psychologists. Socially unadapted children seem lazy, undisciplined, intel-lectually undeveloped, dependent and stubborn, self-willed, poorly managed. At the same time, the child's behavior is distinguished by indecision, passivity, or negativism, stubbornness, aggression. It seems that children with such behavior do not want to behave constructively, deliberately violate discipline. However, this impression is wrong. The child is not really able to cope with his experiences. The presence of negative experiences and affects in a schoolchild inevitably leads to break-downs in behavior, serves as a pretext for the emergence of conflicts with adults and peers. Despite the close attention to this problem, the problem of finding pedagogically effective methods of up-bringing, types and forms of activity corresponding to the physical and mental development of younger students, contributing to the formation and development of social experience and personality traits, which would help the younger student to build ad-equate relationships with the environment, that is, would be factors of social adaptation. Today, in a number of developed countries, there is considerable experience in the use of art therapy in working with children and adolescents with various emotional and behavioral problems and developmental disorders. There are numerous confirmations of the effectiveness of using this technique in schools, where it acts as a means of not only healing and correction, but also development. The main goal of introducing art therapy into schools is to adapt children (including those suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders) to the conditions of an educational institution, and improve their academic performance. The art therapy program “I and We” allows at the early stages to identify children at risk, the development of emotional and behavioral problems, and contributes to the development of students’ mental qualities and personality traits that are of great importance for their successful psychosocial adaptation. The novelty of the program is associated with the adaptation of modern technologies for working with the child's personal sphere to the peculiarities and conditions of working with children with psychological problems in an educational institution.
Keywords: art therapy, primary school age, correction of school adaptation