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Современная зарубежная психология

Издатель: Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет

ISSN (online): 2304-4977

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17759/jmfp

Лицензия: CC BY-NC 4.0

Издается с 2012 года

Периодичность: ежеквартально

Формат: электронное издание

Язык журнала: русский, английский

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Стереотипное и самоповреждающее поведение у детей с нарушениями в развитии 1754

Чухутова Г.Л., Психолог, ФГБУ «Сергиево-Посадский Детский Дом Слепоглухих» Министерства труда и социальной защиты населения России, Сергиев Посад, Россия, chukhutova@gmail.com

Аннотация

Стереотипное поведение определяется как ритмично повторяющиеся движения, неизменные по форме и амплитуде. Они являются естественными на определенных этапах нейро-мышечного созревания в раннем возрасте, однако при некоторых расстройствах развития они приобретают патологические формы, длятся значительное время и препятствуют повседневной адаптации, вплоть до физического самоповреждения. Стереотипии наблюдаются при самых разнообразных нарушениях — аутизме, умственной отсталости, слепоте, глухоте, а также у детей, воспитывающихся в домах ребенка. Общим для всех этих разнородных состояний является наличие какой-либо депривации: сенсорной или социальной. Предполагают, что дети с аутизмом и дети с умственной отсталостью испытывают проблемы переработки и соотнесения зрительных, слуховых и тактильно-кинестетических сигналов, и поэтому они подвергаются своего рода депривации, подобно слепым и глухим детям. Патогенез стереотипного поведения связывают с аномальным функционированием дофамин-эргических и ГАМК-эргических нейронов системы фронтальная кора-таламус-мозжечок, развитие которой растянуто на несколько лет жизни и крайне чувствительно к обеднению окружающей среды.

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