Russian Psychological Issues PsyJournals.ru
OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice Manuscript SubmissionAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us
Experimental Psychology (Russia) - №4 / 2021 | Перейти к описанию
Web of Science СС

  Previous issue (2021. Vol. 14, no. 3)

CrossRef

Experimental Psychology (Russia)

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2072-7593

ISSN (online): 2311-7036

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/exppsy

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 2008

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal

 

The Flinn Effect in Russia: Impact of Settlements’ Size 75

|

Sugonyaev K.V.
PhD in Engineering, Associate Researcher, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6207-7228
e-mail: skv-254@yandex.ru

Grigoriev A.A.
Doctor of Psychology, Chief Researcher of the Laboratory of Psychology and Psychophysiology of Creative Activity, Institute of Psychology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6186-2320
e-mail: andrey4002775@yandex.ru

Panfilova A.S.
PhD in Engineering, Researcher, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1892-5901
e-mail: panfilova87@gmail.com

Abstract
The rise in the intelligence tests scores across the generations, known as the Flynn effect, is widely studied in various countries due to critical role of intelligence as the most important component of human capital. Several explanations for the Flynn effect have been proposed, none of which have a predominant status. At least partly it can be explained by deficiency of studies devoted to the influence of various moderators on the speed and trajectory of the intelligence scores gain. This study presents the results of an analysis of the impact on the Flynn effect of such a poorly studied factor as the settlements’ size of a populated point. Intelligence scores (n = 267116) obtained during large-scale online testing of men aged 18—40 years between 2012 and 2019 were distributed among seven categories of populated points determined by their population size. Significant differences were revealed both in the level of IQ scores and in the rate of its growth, depend- ing on the respondents belonging to these categories. Differences in the level of intelligence of residents of megalopolises and small towns are 7 IQ-points on average, and the dynamics of growth in intelligence scores in the period 1983—2000 differs in some of the categories by more than 2 times. The smallest trend for this period was in cities with a population of 100 to 249.9 thousand people. Possible explanations for the differences are suggested. In particular, the selective migration of the most educated and intellectual part of their population to large cities and capitals may be a possible mechanism for inhibiting the Flynn effect in settlements with a smaller population.

Keywords: intelligence, general cognitive ability, Flynn Effect, online testing, urbanization, the Orien- tation Test — Short Form.

Column: Psychology of Intelligence

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/exppsy.2021140308

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 19-29-07352.

For Reference

References
  1. Grigoriev A., Lapteva E. Obrazovatelnie dostigeniya oposreduyut vliyaniye intellekta na socialno- ekonomicheskie dostigeniya na urovne stran? // Socialnaya i ekonomicheskaya psihologiya, 2018, T. 3. № 3 (11). S. 41—61. (In Russ.).
  2. Grigoriev A., Lapteva E., Ushakov D. Obrazovatel’nye dostizhenija rajonov Moskovskoj oblasti vosproizvodjat uroven’ gramotnosti v XIX v.: mehanizmy «kulturnoj genetiki» // Sibirskij psihologicheskij zhurnal. 2015. № 56. S. 69—85. (In Russ.).
  3. Metodiki voennogo professionalnogo psihologicheskogo otbora : metodicheskoe posobie. M. : Voennoe izd-vo, 2005. — 524 s. (In Russ.).
  4. Sugonyaev K.V., Grigoriev A.A. The Flynn Effect in Russia. Eksperimental’naya psikhologiya = Experimental psychology (Russia), 2019, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 50—61. DOI:10.17759/exppsy.2019120404 (In Russ.).
  5. Ang S.C., Rodgers J.L., Wänström L. The Flynn Effect within subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, race, income, education, and urbanization differences in the NLSY-Children data. Intelligence, 2010, vol. 38(4), pp. 367—384. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2010.05.004
  6. Bratsberg B., Rogeberg O. Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018, vol. 115(26), pp. 6674—6678. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1718793115/-/ DCSupplemental
  7. Deary I.J., Strand S., Smith, P., Fernandes C. Intelligence and educational achievement. Intelligence, 2007, vol. 35(1), pp. 13—21. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2006.02.001
  8. Dutton E., van der Linden D., Lynn R. The negative Flynn effect: A systematic literature review. Intelligence, 2016, vol. 59, pp. 163—169. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2016.10.002
  9. Flynn J.R. The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 1984, vol. 95(1), pp. 29—51. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.95.1.29
  10. Flynn J.R. Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 1987, vol. 101(2), pp. 171—191. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.171
  11. Furr R.M. The double-entry intraclass correlation as an index of profile similarity: meaning, limitations, and alternatives. Journal of Personality Assessment, 2010, vol. 92(1), pp. 1—15. DOI:10.1080/00223890903379134
  12. Gottfredson L.S. Intelligence and social inequality: Why the biological link? Chamorro-Premuzic T., von Stumm S., Furnham A. (Eds.) The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, pp. 538—575.
  13. Kaufman S.B., Reynolds M.R., Liu X., Kaufman A.S., McGrew K.S. Are cognitive g and academic achievement g one and the same g? An exploration on the Woodcock—Johnson and Kaufman tests. Intelligence, 2012, vol. 40(2), pp. 123—138. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2012.01.009.
  14. Lynn R. Dysgenics: Genetic deterioration in modern populations. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2011.
  15. Lynn R., Fuerst J., Kirkegaard E.O.W. Regional differences in intelligence in 22 countries and their economic, social and demographic correlates: A review. Intelligence, 2018, vol. 69, pp. 24—36. DOI:10.1016/j. intell.2018.04.004
  16. McCrae R.R. A note on some measures of profile agreement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 2008, vol. 90(2), pp. 105—109. DOI:10.1080/00223890701845104
  17. Meisenberg G. National IQ and economic outcome. Personality and Individual Differences, 2012, vol. 53(2), pp. 103—107. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.022
  18. Meisenberg G., Lynn R. Intelligence: A measure of human capital in nations. Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 2011, vol. 36, pp. 421—454.
  19. Meisenberg G., Woodley M.A. Are cognitive differences between countries diminishing? Evidence from TIMSS and PISA. Intelligence, 2013, vol. 41(6), pp. 808—816. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2013.03.009
  20. Pietschnig J., Voracek M. One century of global IQ gains:  A  formal  meta-analysis  of  the Flynn effect (1909—2013). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2015, vol. 10(3), pp. 282—306. DOI:10.1177/1745691615577701
  21. Platt J.M., Keyes K.M., McLaughlin K.A., Kaufman A.S. The Flynn effect for fluid IQ may not generalize to all ages or ability levels: A population-based study of 10,000 US adolescents. Intelligence, 2019, vol. 77, article 101385. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2019.101385
  22. Rindermann H., Becker D. FLynn-effect and economic growth: Do national increases in intelligence lead to increases in GDP? Intelligence, 2018, vol. 69, pp. 87—93. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2018.05.001
  23. Rindermann H., Becker D., Coyle T.R. Survey of expert opinion on intelligence: The FLynn effect and the future of intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 2017, vol. 106, pp. 242—247. DOI:10.1016/j. paid.2016.10.061
  24. Rindermann H., Kodila-Tedika O., Christainsen G. Cognitive capital, good governance, and the wealth of nations. Intelligence, 2015, vol. 51, pp. 98—108. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2015.06.002
  25. Rodgers, J.L. Methodological issues associated with studying the Flynn Effect: Exploratory and confirmatory efforts in the past, present, and future. Journal of Intelligence, 2015, vol. 3(4), pp. 111—120. DOI:10.3390/jintelligence3040111
  26. Ronnlund M., Nilsson L.G. The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence, 2008, vol. 36(3), pp. 192—209. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2007.05.002
  27. Scharfen J., Peters J.M., Holling H. Retest effects in cognitive ability tests: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 2018, vol. 67, pp. 44—66. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2018.01.003
  28. Sundet J.M. The Flynn effect in families: Studies of register data on Norwegian military conscripts and their families. Journal of Intelligence, 2014, vol. 2(3), pp. 106—118; DOI:10.3390/jintelligence2030106
  29. Sundet J.M., Borren I., Tambs K. The Flynn effect is partly caused by changing fertility patterns. Intelligence, 2008, vol. 36(3), pp. 183—191. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2007.04.002
  30. Trahan L., Stuebing K.K., Hiscock M.K., Fletcher, J.M. (2014). The Flynn effect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 2014, vol. 140(5), pp. 1332—1360. DOI:10.1037/a0037173
  31. Twenge J.M., Campbell W.K., Sherman R.A. Declines in vocabulary among American adults within levels of educational attainment, 1974—2016. Intelligence, 2019, vol. 76, article 101377. DOI:10.1016/j. intell.2019.101377
  32. Weber D., Dekhtyar S., Herlitz A. The Flynn effect in Europe — Effects of sex and region. Intelligence, 2017, vol. 60, pp. 39—45. DOI:10.1016/j.intell.2016.11.003
  33. Williams R.L. Overview of the Flynn effect. Intelligence, 2013, vol. 41(6), pp. 753—764. DOI:10.1016/j. intell.2013.04.010
  34. Woodley M.A. A life-history model of the Lynn—Flynn effect. Personality and Individual Differences, 2012, vol. 53(2), pp. 152—156. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.028
 
About PsyJournals.ru

© 2007–2022 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved

PsyJournals.ru in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository     Webometrics Ranking of Repositories

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????