Certain Inclusion Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders



The term “Inclusion” is not identical to the concepts of “Inclusive education”, which is much wider. The educational system of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Russia is only developing and the focus on inclusion is a great achievement. Inclusive education in autistic disorders is a special case. The most difficulties in organizing of inclusion of children with ASD caused by main symptoms — communication and social interaction disorders, repeated stereotypical patterns of behavior, interests and activities. After all, these symptoms create a special development situation that makes necessary to solve the following problems: improving the organization of the inclusive process, feasibility and possibility of inclusion process. Typical difficulties faced by domestic and foreign experts reviewed, for example: increased social anxiety in children, lack of trained personnel, and lack of diagnostic in children. Emphasized that the success of inclusion process depends on several things: the readiness for inclusion of the child with autism, the readiness of the environment where inclusion carried out, the level of its tolerance and, finally, the competence of psychological and pedagogical staff. The age of the child and the environment plays a large role: ceteris paribus, the early onset of inclusion contributes to the stability of inclusive readiness of the environment.

General Information

Keywords: autism, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), autism correction, inclusion, inclusive education, segre- gation, inclusion readiness, tolerance

Journal rubric: Expert opinion

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/autdd.2020180106

For citation: Morozov S.A., Morozova S.S., Morozova T.I. Certain Inclusion Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autizm i narusheniya razvitiya = Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2020. Vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–61. DOI: 10.17759/autdd.2020180106. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Belyavskii B.V., Morozov S.A., Morozova S.S. K voprosu o sistematike rasstroistv autisticheskogo spektra kak osnove differentsirovannogo podkhoda k kompleksnomu soprovozhdeniyu [Revisiting the autistic spectrum disorders systematics as a base for the differentiated approach to comprehensive support]. Vospitanie i obuchenie detei s narusheniyami razvitiya [Upbringing and education for children with developmental disorders], 2019, no. 6, pp. 7—14.
  2. Brutter  A.   Detyam  s  autizmom  nuzhna  zhestkaya  sistema  pooshchrenii:  Interv’yu  zhurnalistu «Miloserdie.ru» N. Kaishauri [Children with autism need a strict system of encouragement: Interview with a “Miloserdie.ru” journalist N. Kaishauri] [Web resource]. URL: https://www.miloserdie.ru/article/detyam-s-autizmom-nuzhna-zhestkaya-sistema-pooshhrenij/  (Accessed 26.02.2020).
  3. Cohen S. Kak zhit’ s autizmom [Targeting autism]. / Translated from English by Igor’ Kostin. Moscow: Publ. Institut obshchegumanitarnykh issledovanii, 2008, 238 p. ISBN  978-5-88230-232-9.
  4. Makold R. Nash opyt v oblasti autizma: osnovanie instituta v N’yu-Dzhersi [Our experience regarding autism: estabilishing an institute in New Jersey]. In MorozovS.A. (ed.) Organizatsiya psikhologo-pedagogicheskoi i mediko-sotsial’noi pomoshchi litsam s rasstroistvami autisticheskogo spektra. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Moskva, 1—3 oktyabrya 2009 g.] [Organizing psychological, pedagogic, medical and social support for people with autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the international scientific and practical conference [Moscow, October 1—3, 2009]]. Moscow, 2009. Pp. 36—56.
  5. Morozov S.A. Osnovy sotsial’noi i pravovoi pomoshchi litsam s autizmom [Basics of social and legal support for people with autism]. Moscow, 2002. SignaL. 144 р.
  6. Morozov S.A. O khode aprobatsii primernoi adaptirovannoi osnovnoi obshcheobrazovatel’noi programmy doshkol’nogo obrazovaniya detei s rasstroistvami autisticheskogo spectra [The Progress of Approbation of the Approximate Adapted General Education Program of Preschool Education for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders]. Autizm i narusheniya razvitiya [Autism and Developmental Disorders (Russia)], 2018, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 3—11. doi:10.17759/autdd.2018160401 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  7. Morozov S.A. K voprosu o komorbidnosti pri rasstroistvakh autisticheskogo spektra [On the Issue of Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorders]. Autizm i narusheniya razvitiya [Autism and Developmental Disorders (Russia)], 2018, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 3—8. doi:10.17759/autdd.2018160201 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  8. Morozov S.A., Morozova T.I. Sotsial’nye i pravovye aspekty pomoshchi litsam s rasstroistvami autisticheskogo spectra [Social and legal aspects of supporting people with autism spectrum disorders]. Moscow: Publ. Fedorovets, 2008. 330 p.
  9. Nikol’skaya O.S. Autizm lechitsya obshcheniem [Treating autism with communication]. Autizm i narusheniya razvitiya [Autism and Developmental Disorders (Russia)], 2016, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 35—38. doi:10.17759/autdd.2016140406 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  10. Churkin A.A., Martyushov A.N. Kratkoe rukovodstvo po ispol’zovaniyu MKB-10 v psikhiatrii i narkologii [A short guide to using ICD-10 in psychiatry and narcology]. Moscow: Publ. Triada-X, 1999, 232 p. ISBN 5-8249-0012-4. Pp. 107—121.
  11. Gelbar N.W., Bruder M.B., DeBiase E., Molteni J.D. A Retrospective Chart Review of Children with ASD’s Individual Education Plan Compared to Subsequent Independent Psychological Evaluation. Journal of Autism  and  Developmental  Disorders, 2018, vol. 48, no. 11, pр. 3808—3815. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-3652-4
  12. Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child, 1943, vol. 2, pp. 217—250.
  13. Larcombe T.J., Joosten A.V., Cordier R., Vaz S. Preparing Children with Autism for Transition to Mainstream School and Perspectives on Supporting Positive School Experiences. Journal of Autism and  Developmental  Disorders, 2019, vol. 49, pp. 3073—3078. doi:10.1007/s10803-019-04022-z
  14. Liebal K., Colombi C., Rogers S.J., Warneken F., Tomasello M. Helping and Cooperation in Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2008, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 224—238. doi:10.1007/ s10803-007-0381-5
  15. Majoko T. Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Listening and Hearing to Voices from the Classroom. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2016, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1429— 1440.  doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2685-1
  16. Noland R.M., Gabriels R.L. Screening and Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Public School System: The Development of a Model Process. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2004, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 265—277. doi:10.1023/b:jadd.0000029549.84385.44
  17. Robertson K., Chamberlain B., Kasari C. General Education Teachers’ Relationship with Included Students with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2003, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 123— 130. doi:10.1023/A:1022979108096
  18. Schopler E. Principles for directing both Educational treatment and research. In Gillberg C. (ed.) Diagnosis and treatment of autism. New York: London: Plenum Press, 1989. X, 450 p. ISBN 978-0- 306-43481-5. Pp. 167—184.  doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-0882-7
  19. Sigafoos J., Roberts D., Kerr M., Couzens D., Baglioni A.J. Opportunities for Communication in Classrooms Serving Children with Developmental Disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1994, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 259—280. doi:10.1007/BF02172226
  20. Towle P.O., Vacanti-Shova K., Higgins-D’Alessandro A., Ausikaitis A., Reynolds C. A Longitudinal Study of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder Before Age Three: School Services at Three Points Time for Three Levels of Outcome Disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2018, vol. 48, no. 11, pр. 2064—2076. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-3606-x
  21. Wing L. Social, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics: An epidemiological approach In Rutter M., Schopler E. (eds.) Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1978. XII, 540 p. ISBN 978-1-4684-0789-1. Pp. 27—45. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0787-7
  22. Zainal H., Magiati I. A Comparison Between Caregiver-Reported Anxiety and Other Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Specialists or Mainstream Schools. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2019, vol. 49, no. 4, pp.  2792—2797. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2792-7

Information About the Authors

Sergey A. Morozov, PhD in Biology, Leading scientific worker of the Centre for Socialization and Personalization of Children Education, Federal Institute of Education Development of Presidential Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7354-2711, e-mail: morozov-ca@mail.ru

Svetlana S. Morozova, methodologist, The Regional Community Charity Organization «Society for Autistic Children Care “Dobro”», Presidential Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA);, Presidential Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4483-1477, e-mail: sv-morozova@yandex.ru

Tatiana I. Morozova, Special Teacher, Regional Public Charity Organization “The Society for Autistic Children Care “Dobro”, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1703-5029, e-mail: tim.sam70@yandex.ru



Total: 1276
Previous month: 24
Current month: 27


Total: 760
Previous month: 5
Current month: 8