Comparative Analysis of Inclusive Education in Germany and Sweden



Currently, inclusive education is the dominant approach to ensuring equal access to education for students with special educational needs around the world. Inclusion entails the restructuring of basic school education, taking into account the needs of each student, and because of this, problems arise associated with the organization of the learning process. This article provides a comparative analysis of inclusive education on the example of countries such as Germany and Sweden, which have different views on how to implement inclusive education for children with special needs.

General Information

Keywords: inclusion, inclusive education, special educational needs, schoolchildren, limited opportunities, spe-cial schools.

Journal rubric: Development of Regional Psychological Support Practices in Education and Social Sphere

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Tretyak E.V. Comparative Analysis of Inclusive Education in Germany and Sweden [Elektronnyi resurs]. Vestnik prakticheskoi psikhologii obrazovaniya = Bulletin of Psychological Practice in Education, 2021. Vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 90–99. DOI: 10.17759/bppe.2021180210. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Davydenko A.V. Metodologicheskie printsipy inklyuzivnogo obrazovaniya: opredelenie ponyatii = Methodological principles of inclusive education: determination of concepts. Gumanitarnye, sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie i obshchestvennye nauki = Humanities, Social-Economic and Social Sciences, 2014, no. 12-2, pp.157–162 (In Russ.).
  2. Access to quality education for children with special educational needs. 2019. Publications Office of the EU. URL: (Accessed 05.06.2021).
  3. Ahrbeck B., Felder M. Analysis of Barriers to Inclusive Schools in Germany: Why Special Education Is Necessary and Not Evil. Education Sciences, 2020, 10(12):358.
  4. Andriichuk N. Historical Background of Inclusive Education Development in the Nordic Countries. Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 2017, no. 4 (1), pp. 97–104.
  5. Berhanu G. Inclusive education in Sweden. Responses, challenges, and prospects. International Journal of Special Education, 2011, no. 26 (2), pp. 128–148.
  6. Bildung in Deutschland 2020. Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung. 2020. 361 p.
  7. Bruns D.A., Mogharreban C.C. The gap between beliefs and practices: Earlychildhood practitioners’ per-ceptions about inclusion. Journal of Researc in Childhood Education, 2007, no. 3, pp. 229–234.
  8. Dworschak W. Schulbegleitung. individuelle hilfe und unterstützung beim schulbesuch — Ein beitrag zur inklusion? Leben mit Behinderung, 2016, no. 2 (1), pp. 14–17.
  9. Galevska N.A., Pesic M.I. Assessing children with special educational needs in the inclusive classrooms. Lodging the theory in social practice. Los Angeles: Education Department, Antioch University, 2018, pp. 89–100.
  10. Göransson K., Lindqvist G., Nilholm C. Voices of special educators in Sweden: a total-population study. Educational Research, 2015, no. 57 (3), pp. 287–304.
  11. Isaksson J., Lindqvist R. What is the meaning of special education? Problem representations in Swedish policy documents: late 1970s–2014. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 2015, no. 30 (1), pp. 122–137.
  12. Nilholm C. Special education, inclusion and democracy. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 2006. Vol. 21 (4), pp. 431–445.
  13. OECD Economic Outlook: Interim Report March 2021. Paris, 2021. 19 p.
  14. Rosenqvist J. Special Education in Sweden. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 1993. Vol. 8 (1), pp. 59–74.
  15. Skollag The Education Act. Stockholm, Sweden: Utbildningsdepartementet, 2010.

Information About the Authors

Elina V. Tretyak, PhD in Education, Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology and Pedagogy of Distance Learning, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 3214
Previous month: 45
Current month: 13


Total: 1157
Previous month: 31
Current month: 13