Smart Body or the Problem of Human Corporeality Development in the Context of Outsourced Life. Part 1.



The paper analyses the issue of a popular trend called ‘life outsourcing’ which affects the structure of personality in an individual. Basing on the works of L.S. Vygotsky and others, the author explores the methodology of the concept of cultural development as a process of formation of an embodied personality or non-organic body. He outlines the search for the approaches to the process of cultural development and for its descriptions in terms of personality construction and ‘soul organism’ which can be traced down in Vygotsky’s works. According to these works, cultural-historical psychology employed a concept of tool- and activity-based personality body, or soul organism. As it is argued in the paper, this concept is to a certain extent incomplete. What happens to the individual’s personality body in a situation of increasingly popular life outsourcing, i.e. when more and more basic functions and actions are transferred from the individual to various devices? Using artistic creativity as an example, the author explores the artist’s transition from working with natural materials to working with devices and focuses on the problem of the artist’s ‘smart body’ losing the feeling of texture and form. The issue is to be continued in the second paper.

General Information

Keywords: body, non-organic body, personality, functional organ, life outsourcing.

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Smirnov S.A. Smart Body or the Problem of Human Corporeality Development in the Context of Outsourced Life. Part 1.. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2016. Vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 4–13. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2016120101. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Sergei A. Smirnov, Doctor of Philosophy, docent, Leading Researcher, Department of Philosophy, Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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