Developing and Testing a Short Version of the Social Axioms Questionnaire by M. Bond and K. Leung



This article describes the process of developing and testing of short version of M. Bond’s and K. Leung’s "Social axioms" questionnaire. The previous version, adapted in Russian, contains 126 items, which makes it difficult to use it for applied purposes, as well as in large surveys on representative samples. Therefore, there was a need to make a shortened version of this questionnaire. Features of the method. The new version of the questionnaire developed by the authors contains 31 items. The sample used for testing the short version included 867 respondents (36% men, 67% women, average age 28,6 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis were used in data processing; reliability and consistency were evaluated using the α-Cronbach coefficient. Reliability and validity. The authors managed to develop a shortened version of the questionnaire, which has high reliability and consistency, and confirms the five-factor structure of the model of social axioms. Also, the results of the shortened version have a high correlation with the results obtained using the full version of this questionnaire, which confirms its validity. Application. The method can be used in scientific research in the field of social, cross-cultural, and economic psychology. This questionnaire can also be used in applied work, for example, in the field of organizational diagnostics or professional selection.

General Information

Keywords: social axioms, validity, reliability, confirmatory factor analysis

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article


Funding. This work was supported by grant RSF (project № 17-78-30035 «Psychological factors of Russia's economic and social competitiveness»).

For citation: Tatarko A.N., Lebedeva N.M. Developing and Testing a Short Version of the Social Axioms Questionnaire by M. Bond and K. Leung. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2020. Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 96–110. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2020160110. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Avdulova T.P., Motyleva L.A. Sotsial’nye predstavleniya podrostkov, sklonnykh k risku [Social representations of adolescents are prone to risk]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society], 2015. Vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 105—116. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  2. Galyapina V.N., Lebedeva N.M. Transmissiya tsennostei i psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie podrostkov: trekhpokolennoe issledovanie russkikh i osetin v Respublike Severnaya Osetiya — Alaniya [Transmission of values and psychological well-being of adolescents: a three-generation study of Russians and Ossetians in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2019. Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 105— 116. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.). doi:10.17759/chp.2019150205.
  3. Andreeva G.M. Psikhologiya sotsial’nogo poznaniya [Psychology of social cognition]. Moscow: Aspect press, 2000. 287 p.
  4. Emel’yanova T.P. Konstruirovanie sotsial’nykh predstavlenii v usloviyakh transformatsii rossiiskogo obshchestva [Construction of social representations in the conditions of transformation of the Russian society]. Moscow: «Institut psikhologii RAN», 2006. 400 p.
  5. Zhuravleva N.A. Dinamika tsennostnykh orientatsii lichnosti v rossiiskom obshchestve [Dynamics of personal value orientations in Russian society]. Moscow: «Institut psikhologii RAN», 2006. 355 p.
  6. Lapin N.I., Belyaeva L.A., Naumova N.F., Zdravomyslov A.G. Dinamika tsennostei naselenii reformiruemoi Rossii [Dynamics of values of the population of the reformed Russia]. Moscow: URSS, 1996. 224 p.
  7. Lebedeva N.M. Bazovye tsennosti russkikh i na rubezhe XXI veka [Basic values of Russians at the turn of the twenty-first century]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological journal], 2000. Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 73-87. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  8. Lebedeva N.M. Tsennostno-motivatsionnaya struktura lichnosti v russkoi kul’ture [Value-motivational structure of the personality in the Russian culture]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological journal], 2001. Vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 26—36. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.).
  9. Lebedeva N.M., Tatarko A.N. Tsennosti kul’tury i razvitie obshchestva [Cultural values and society development.]. Moscow: GU-VSHE, 2007. 527 p.
  10. Nartova-Bochaver S.K. Connection between the psychological sovereignty and social beliefs: personal boundaries in the social world. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society], 2017. Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 100—114. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.). doi: 10.17759/ sps.2017080308.
  11. Pavlova, O.S. Tsennostnye orientatsii chechentsev i ingushei: istochniki i determinant [The value orientation of the Chechens and Ingush: the sources and determinants]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psycholgy], 2012. Vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 78—87. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.)
  12. Sergienko E.A., Khlevnaya E.A., Vetrova I.I., Nikitina A.A. Test emotsional’nogo intellekta — russkoyazychnaya metodika [Emotional intelligence test — the Russian-language version]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo [ Social Psychology and Society], 2019. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 177—192. (In Engl., аbstr. in Russ.). doi:10.17759/ sps.2019100311.
  13. Tatarko A. N., Lebedeva N. M. Metody etnicheskoi i krosskul’turnoi psikhologii [Methods of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology]. Moscow: NIU-VSHE, 2011. 260 p. doi: 10.17323/978-5-7598-0867-1.
  14. Shestopal E.B. Osobennosti ispol’zovaniya psikhologicheskikh metodov dlya izucheniya politicheskogo vospriyatiya [Specifics of using psychological methods to study political perception]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society], 2018. Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 81—90. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.). doi:10.17759/sps.2018090309
  15. Em M.-A., Dani L., Dvoryanchikov N.V., Bovina I.B. Kak deti ponimayut zdorov’e i bolezn’: razmyshleniya s tochki zreniya teorii sotsial’nykh predstavlenii [How children understand health and illness: reflections from the point of view of the theory of social representations]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [ Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2018. Vol. 14, no.1, pp. 15—22. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.) doi:10.17759/chp.2018140102
  16. Bar-Tal D. The Conception of Group Beliefs. In: Group Beliefs. Springer Series in Social Psychology. Springer, New York, NY, 1990, pp. 35—46. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-3298-8_4
  17. Bem D.J. Beliefs, attitudes, and human affairs. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co, 1970. 144 p.
  18. Bond M.H., Leung K., et al. Culture-level dimensions of social axioms and their correlations across 41 cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2004, no. 5 (35), pp. 548—570.
  19. Ip G.W. M., Bond M.H. Culture, values, and the spontaneous self-concept. Asian Journal of Psychology, 1995, no. 1, pp. 30—36.
  20. Leung K. Some determinants of reactions to procedural models of conflict resolution: A cross-national study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, no. 53, pp. 898—908. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.5.898.
  21. Leung K., Bond M.H. Social axioms: A model for social beliefs in multicultural perspective. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2004, no. 36, pp. 119—142. doi: 10.1016/ S0065-2601(04)36003-X.
  22. Leung K., Bond M.H., Reimel de Carrasquel S., Muñoz C., Hernández M., Murakami F., Yamaguchi S., Bierbrauer G., Singelis T.M. Social axioms: The search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002, no. 33, pp. 286—302. doi: 10.1177/0022022102033003005.
  23. Leung K., Bond M.H., Schwartz S.H. How to explain cross-cultural differences: Values, valences, and expectancies? Asian Journal of Psychology, 1995, no. 1, pp. 70—75.
  24. Magun V., Rudnev M. Basic Values of Russians and Other Europeans. Problems of Economic Transition, 2012, Vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 31—64.
  25. Rokeach M. The nature of human values. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1973. 438 p.
  26. Schwartz S.H. Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In Kim U., Triandis H.C., Kagitcibasi C., Choi S.-C., Yoon G. (Eds.). Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. housand Oaks, CA: Sage. 1994, pp. 85—119.
  27. Schwartz S.H. Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues, 1994. Vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 19—45. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x.
  28. Schwartz S.H., Caprara G.V., Vecchione M. Basic personal values, core political values and voting: A longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology, 2010. Vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 421—452. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2010.00764.x.

Information About the Authors

Alexander N. Tatarko, Doctor of Psychology, Chief Research Fellow, Center for Socio-Cultural Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Employee of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Nadezhda M. Lebedeva, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Director of the Center for Socio-Cultural Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Employee of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 1442
Previous month: 23
Current month: 17


Total: 1403
Previous month: 21
Current month: 16