Russian Version of the International Trauma Questionnaire: Adaptation and Validation in a Non-Clinical Sample



Purpose. The article presents the results of adaptation and validation of the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) on a Russian sample. The questionnaire measures the symptoms of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD), which can develop as a result of exposure to prolonged, repetitive traumatic experiences in the interpersonal sphere. Method. The study was carried out on a non-clinical sample, which included 429 participants who were 18 to 68 years old and who experienced at least one traumatic event in their lives. International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ), LEC-5 (Life events checklist-5), author’s questionnaire “Emotional abuse”, Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) were used in the study. Results. The structure of the questionnaire in the Russian-speaking sample confirmed the two-factor model of complex PTSD, which combines the symptoms of PTSD («Re-experiencing», «Avoidance», «Sense of Threat») and disturbances of Self-organization («Affective Dysregulation», «Negative Self-concept», «Disturbances in Relationships»). Internal consistency of the scale was in the acceptable range. Among those who have experienced at least one traumatic event, 20% met criteria for PTSD (11%) or CPTSD (9%). These data show that respondents with CPTSD have more intense psychopathological symptoms than respondents with PTSD; women show more intense symptoms of CPTSD than men.

General Information

Keywords: international trauma questionnaire, complex post-traumatic stress disorder, ICD-11.

Journal rubric: Testing and Validating Instruments

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number № 19-013-00011.

Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Sofya Belova, Marina Dan, Ekaterina Dymova for assistance in translating International Trauma Questionnaire into Russian.

Received: 26.10.2021


For citation: Padun M.A., Bykhovets J.V., Kazymova N.N., Ccentsova-Dutton Y. Russian Version of the International Trauma Questionnaire: Adaptation and Validation in a Non-Clinical Sample. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2022. Vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 42–67. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2022300304. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Maria A. Padun, PhD in Psychology, Senior Research Assistant, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Julia V. Bykhovets, PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Psychology of Development of the Subject in Normal and Post-Traumatic States, Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IP RAS), Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Nadezhda N. Kazymova, PhD in Psychology, research associate, Institute of Psychology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Yulia Ccentsova-Dutton, Doctor of Philosophy, professor, Georgetown University, Washington, USA, ORCID:, e-mail:



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