Psychological Separation from Parents in Adolescence in the Context of Value and Semantic Orientations



Relevance. The problem of psychological separation in adolescence comes up against many contradictions, such as high demands of society to the young generation and difficulties on the way to comply with them (prolongation of the adolescent period, dependence on parents, personal immaturity, infantilism, instability of axiological orientations, etc.). Aim. The goal is to study the relationship between the level of separation anxiety, components of psychological separation from parents and axiological and life–purpose orientations in adolescence. Materials and methods. Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire ASA–27, adapted by A.A. Dityuk Hoffman’s questionnaire of psychological separation, D.A. Leontyev’s test of life–purpose orientations, E.B. Fantalova’s «Level of Value and Availability Ratio in Different Life Spheres». Sampling: 98 students of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions at the age of 17–21 years (52% boys and 48% girls). Results and conclusions. Components of psychological separation from parents in adolescence is uneven; psychological separation from parents has been partially completed. Separation from the mother is more pronounced than from the father. Separation anxiety is expressed to a moderate degree. The conflicting style of separation prevails. Attitudinal separation from parents has been achieved to a greater extent affective and behavioral separations are insufficiently formed; in boys and girls, pronounced separation anxiety is associated with unformed life–purpose orientations and motivational and personal integration in the «value–availability» plane in the areas of «happy family life», «materially secure life», «freedom»; incomplete separation from the mother and the presence of meaning in life for her children are interconnected; incomplete separation from the father is associated with the present life–meaning crisis in his children.

General Information

Keywords: psychological separation, separation anxiety, youth, value orientations, value–semantic orientations

Journal rubric: Empirical Researches

Article type: scientific article


Received: 29.11.2023


For citation: Korennaia A.V., Ralnikova I.A. Psychological Separation from Parents in Adolescence in the Context of Value and Semantic Orientations. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2024. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 122–138. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2024320106. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Varga A.Ya. Vvedenie v sistemnuyu semeinuyu psikhoterapiyu [Introduction to Systemic Family Therapy]. Moscow: Izd–vo Kogito–Tsentr, 2009. 182 p.
  2. Dzukaeva V.P., Sadovnikova T.Yu. Adaptatsiya oprosnika PSI (Psychological Separation Inventory) na rossiiskoi vyborke [Adaptation of the PSI (Psychological Separation Inventory) questionnaire on the Russian sample]. Semeinaya psikhologiya i semeinaya psikhoterapiya  =  Family psychology and family psychotherapy, 2014, vol. 1, рр. 3¾20. (In Russ.; abstr. in Engl.).
  3. Dityuk A.A. Adaptatsiya testa separatsionnoi trevogi vzroslykh ASA–27 (Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire) na rossiiskoi vyborke [Elektronnyi resurs] [Adaptation of the ASA–27 (Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire) test of adult separation anxiety on a Russian sample]. Psikhologicheskie issledovaniya  =  Psychological research, 2016, vol. 9, no. 46. Available at: (Accessed: 11.11.2022). (In Russ., Abstr. in Engl.).
  4. Dontsov D.A., Dontsova M.V. Psikhologicheskie osobennosti yunosheskogo (studencheskogo) vozrasta [Psychological characteristics of youthful (student) age]. Obrazovatel'nye tekhnologi  =  Educational technologies, 2013, no. 2, рр. 34¾42. (In Russ., Abstr. in Engl.).
  5. Il'in V.I. Psikhologiya vzrosleniya: Razvitie individual'nosti v sem'e i obshchestve [Psychology of growing up: Development of individuality in the family and society]. Moscow: Eterna, 2006. 336 p.
  6. Leont'ev D.A. Psikhologiya smysla: priroda, stroenie i dinamika smyslovoi real'nosti [Psychology of meaning: nature, structure and dynamics of meaning reality]. Moscow: Smysl, 2003. 487 p.
  7. Leont'ev D.A. Test smyslozhiznennykh orientatsii (SZhO) [Meaningful Orientation Test (MOT)]. Moscow: Smysl, 2000. 18 p.
  8. Litvinova A.V. Psikhologicheskaya separatsiya ot roditelei kak uslovie razvitiya tselepolaganiya studentov. [Elektronnyi resurs] [Psychological separation from parents as a condition for the development of students' goal setting]. Psikhologo–pedagogicheskie issledovaniya  =  Psychological and pedagogical research, 2020, no. 1, рр. 59¾71. Available at: (Accessed 17.03.2023). (In Russ., Abstr. in Engl.).
  9. Malenova A.Yu., Potapova Yu.V. Separatsiya vzrosleyushchikh detei: svoboda dlya ili ot? [Separation of growing children: freedom for or from?]. Omsk: Izd–vo Om. gos. un–ta, 2020. 311 p.
  10. Manukyan V.R. Vzroslenie molodezhi: separatsiya ot roditelei, sub"ektivnaya vzroslost' i psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie v vozraste 18—27 let. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie  =  Psychological Science and Education, 2022, Vol. 27, no. 3, рр. 129¾140. DOI:10.17759/pse.2022270310 (In Russ., Abstr. in Engl.).
  11. Shilova N.P., Vladyko A.K. Etapy vzrosleniya v rossiiskoi sovremennoi kul'ture. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal  =  Siberian Psychological Journal, 2021, no. 1, 82, рр. 37—53. DOI:10.17223/17267080/82/3 (In Russ., Abstr. in Engl.).
  12. Fantalova E.B. Tsennosti i vnutrennie konflikty: teoriya, metodologiya, diagnostika [Values ​​and internal conflicts: theory, methodology, diagnostics]. Moscow, Berlin: Direkt–Media, 2015. 141 p.
  13. Transition–to–adulthood profiles and well–being: similarities and distinctions among urban and remote contexts / S. Boisvert [et al.]. Emerging Adulthood [Internet], 2020. Vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1191—1203. DOI:10.1177/2167696820983040 (Accessed 19.04.2023).
  14. Kavcic T., Zupancic M. Types of separation–individuation in relation to mothers and fathers among young people entering adulthood. Journal of Youth Studies, 2019, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 66—86. DOI:10.1080/13676261.2018.1478070
  15. Lacey R.E., Bartley M., Pikhart H. et al. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms. BMC Public Health, 2014. Vol. 14. DOI: 10.1186/1471–2458–14–272
  16. Hoffman J.A. Psychological separation of late adolescents from their parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1984, vol. 31, pp. 170¾178.
  17. Zukauskienė R., Kaniušonyt G., Nelson L.J., Crocetti E., Malinauskienė O., Hihara S., Sugimura K. Objective and subjective markers of transition to adulthood in emerging adults: Their mediating role in explaining the link between parental trust and life satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2020. Vol. 37, no. 12. pp. 3006—3027. DOI:10.1177/0265407520948621

Information About the Authors

Asia V. Korennaia, Master in Psychology, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina A. Ralnikova, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 75
Previous month: 0
Current month: 75


Total: 17
Previous month: 0
Current month: 17