Approbation of the Questionnaire of Imaginary Representations of Professional Activity of Athletes



The aim of this work was to develop and test the questionnaire of imaginary representations of the professional activity of athletes. We have developed a questionnaire of 100 questions, including 9 parameters (subscales). The questionnaire was tested on 399 sportsmen, 48.4% of which were candidates for the master of sports, master of sports or international class master of sports. The statistical analysis showed a good agreement of these parameters (subscales), which was 0,61—0,89. Characteristic features of image representations (IR) were revealed for representatives of different sports. The results showed that in dynamic sports under conditions of uncertainty athletes more often note the IR of temporal, spatial, informational, energetic aspects of the sports situation, as well as the game intellect. In solitarysports athletes more often talk about motivational-personal aspects of representation, in group sports — about the representation of the social environment, which is explained by the specifics inherent in solitary and group sports activities. It is also shown that in dynamic sports under given conditions "peaks" of the profile are noted on the representation of technical-tactical, energy components and motivational-personal aspects. In static sports technical-tactical and motivational-personal aspects of representation come to the fore. Thus, the questionnaire of imaginary representations of professional activity of athletes can be used as a tool for diagnostics of peculiarities of imaginary representations in athletes.

General Information

Keywords: psychology of sports, figurative representations, typology of professional activity, systemic figurative representation, classification, types of sports activity

Journal rubric: Sports Psychology

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Science Foundation (RSF), project number 19-78-10134.

Received: 19.04.2021


For citation: Leonov S.V., Polikanova I.S., Rasskazova E.I. Approbation of the Questionnaire of Imaginary Representations of Professional Activity of Athletes. Eksperimental'naâ psihologiâ = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2022. Vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 195–215. DOI: 10.17759/exppsy.2022150413. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Anokhin P.K. Printsipial'nye voprosy obshchei teorii funktsional'nykh sistem [Fundamental Questions of the General Theory of Functional Systems]. M.: Nauka Publ., 1973. 61 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Anokhin P.K. Funktsional'naya sistema, kak metodologicheskii printsip biologicheskogo i fiziologicheskogo issledovaniya [Functional system as methodological principle of biological and physiological research] // Sistemnaya organizatsiya fiziologicheskikh funktsii [System organization of physiological functions]. M.: Meditsina, 1968. P. 5—7. (In Russ.).
  3. Bernshtein N.A. Ocherki po fiziologii dvizhenii i fiziologii aktivnosti [Essays on physiology of movements and activity physiology]. M.: Meditsina, 1966. 349 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Bogen M.M. Obuchenie dvigatel'nym deistviyam [Training of motor actions]. M.: Fizkul'tura i sport, 1985. 192 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Veraksa A.N., Gorovaya A.E., Grushko A.I., Leonov S.V. Myslennaya trenirovka v psikhologicheskoi podgotovke sportsmenov: nauchnaya monografiya [Mental training in psychological training of athletes: a scientific monograph]. M.: Sport, 2016. 208 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Gal'perin P.Ya. Formirovanie znanii i umenii na osnove teorii poetapnogo usvoeniya [Formation of knowledge and skills on the basis of the theory of stage-by-stage assimilation]. M.: Izd-vo Mosk. un-ta, 1968. 120 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Gellershtein S.G. K voprosu o professional'noi tipologii [To the question of professional typology] // Psikhotekhnika i psikhofiziologiya truda [Psychotechnics and psychophysiology of work]. 1930. Vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 489—502. (In Russ.).
  8. Klimov E.A. Psikhologiya professionala [Psychology of the professional]. Moscow: «Institut prakticheskoi psikhologii», 1996. 400 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Petrovskii A.V., Yaroshevskii M.G. Psikhologiya. Slovar' [Psychology. Dictionary] / Pod obshch. red. AV Petrovskogo, MG Yaroshevskogo. 2-e izd., ispr. i dop. М.: Politizdat. 1990. 15 p. (In Russ.).
  10. Puni A.Ts. K voprosu ob osoznavaemosti i neosoznavaemosti v zauchennykh deistviyakh [On Consciousness and Unconsciousness in Learned Actions] / Voprosy psikhologii sporta [Problems of Sports Psychology]. Moscow, 1955. Pp. 5—39. (In Russ.).
  11. Serova L.K. Psikhologiya lichnosti sportsmena: ucheb. Posobie [The psychology of the personality of an athlete: a textbook] / L.K. Serova. M.: Sovetskii sport, 2007. 116 p. (In Russ.).
  12. Strelkov Yu.K. Inzhenernaya i professional'naya psikhologiya [Engineering and professional psychology]. М.: Izdatel'skii tsentr «Akademiya», 2003. (In Russ.).
  13. KholodovZh.K., Kuznetsov B.C. Teoriya i metodika fizicheskogo vospitaniya i sporta: Ucheb. posobie dlya stud. vyssh. ucheb. zavedenii [Theory and methodology of physical education and sport: Textbook for students of higher educational institutions]. M.: Izdatel'skii tsentr «Akademiya», 2000. 480 p. (In Russ.).
  14. Tsukanov B.I. Vremya v psikhike cheloveka [Time in the human psyche]. Odessa: Astroprint, 2000. 217  p. (In Russ.).
  15. Denis M. Visual imagery and the use of mental practice in the development of motor skills. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science. 1985. No. 10, pp. 8S.
  16. Filgueiras A., QuintasConde E.F., Hall C.R. The neural basis of kinesthetic and visual imagery in sports: an ALE meta−analysis. Brain imaging and behavior. 2018. Vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1513—1523.
  17. Hardy L., Jones G., Gould D. Understanding psychological preparation for sport: Theory and practice of elite performers. West Sussex, England: Wiley, 1996. 28 р.
  18. Henson R.K. Effect-Size Measures and Meta-Analytic Thinking in Counseling Psychology Research. The Counseling Psychologist. 2006. Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 601—629. DOI:10.1177/0011000005283558
  19. Jose J., Joseph M.M., Matha M. Imagery: It’s effects and benefits on sports performance and psychological variables: A review study. International Journal of Physiology, Nutrition and Physical Education. 2018. 3, no. 2, pp. 190—193.
  20. Ladda A.M., Lebon F., Lotze M. Using motor imagery practice for improving motor performance—a review. Brain and Cognition. 2021. 150, pp. 105705.
  21. Moran A. Conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of mental imagery skills in athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior.1993. No. 16, pp. 156—170.
  22. Murphy S. Imagery interventions in sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1994. No. 26, pp. 486—494.
  23. Richardson A. Mental imagery. London: Routledge & Kegan, 1969. 261 р.
  24. Simons J. Doing imagery in the field. Doing Sport Psychology / Ed. M. Andersen. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2000. P. 77—91.
  25. Simonsmeier B.A., Andronie M., Buecker S., Frank C. The effects of imagery interventions in sports: A meta-analysis. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2021. 14, no. 1, pp. 186—207.
  26. Suinn R. Imagery in sports. Imagery, current theory, research, and application / A. Sheikh (Ed.). New York: Wiley, 1982. Р. 507—534.
  27. Tellegen A., Ben-Porath Y.S., McNulty J.L., Arbisi P.A., Graham J.R., Kaemmer B. The MMPI-2 restructured clinical scales: Development, validation, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
  28. Triplett N. The dynamogenic factors in pacemaking and competition. The American journal of psychology. 1898. 9, no. 4, pp. 507—533.
  29. Vealey R., Greenleaf C. Seeing is believing: Understanding and using imagery in sport. Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance 4th / J. Williams (Ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 2001. P. 247—288.
  30. Vealey R., Walter S. Imagery training for performance enhancement and personal development. Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance, 2nd ed. / J. Williams (Ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 1993. P. 200—224.

Information About the Authors

Sergey V. Leonov, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Methodology of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina S. Polikanova, PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Laboratory "Psychology of Professions and Conflict", Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Elena I. Rasskazova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Neuro- and Patopsychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Senior Researcher,Mental Health Research Center, Senior Researcher, International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 216
Previous month: 21
Current month: 3


Total: 72
Previous month: 5
Current month: 1