Studying Social Representations: an Outsider’s Perspective

437

Abstract

Objective. The aim of this article is a brief look at the current state of development of the theory of social representations (SRs), and a discussion of problematic points of the methodology of the SRs analysis.Background. Over the sixty years of its existence, the theory of SRs has been enriched with new ideas, methodological and methodological techniques to study SR, expanded the ranks of its supporters, who answered open questions and formulated new ones. The article proposes a brief look at the development of the theory of SR and empirical approaches to SRs. The main methods of research of the SRs are discussed.Conclusions. Observing the development of the theory of SRs over the past decade, the authors find new arguments in favor of the idea expressed by G. Breakwell, that the heterogeneity of empirical approaches to SRs turned out to be not a weakness, but a strength of the theory of SRs, by giving this theoretical tradition influence within the framework of social psychology.

General Information

Keywords: theory of so­cial representations, approaches to study so­cial representations, methods and techniques to study the content and the structure of social representations

Journal rubric: Theoretical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2022130302

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Scientific Foundation (RSF), project number 22-28-00661

Received: 06.06.2022

Accepted:

For citation: Bovina I.B., Dvoryanchikov N.V., Melnikova D.V., Lavreshkin N.V. Studying Social Representations: an Outsider’s Perspective. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2022. Vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 8–25. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2022130302. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

1. Vinogradova Ya.E., Gurieva S.D. Metodologicheskie priemy i metody izucheniya sotsial'nykh predstavlenii [Methodological techniques and methods of studying social representations]. Nauchnoe mnenie = The Scientific Opinion, 2021, no. 10, pp. 10–13. DOI:10.25807/22224378_2021_10_10 (In Russ.).

2. Volodarskaya E.A. Issledovanie obraza uchenogo v kontekste kontseptsii sotsial'nykh predstavlenii Serzha Moskovisi [The study of a scientist image in the context of the concept of social representations of Serge Moscovici]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Psikhologiya i pedagogika = RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 402–421. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-402-421 (In Russ.).

3. Dontsov A.I., Emel'yanova T.P. Kontseptsiya sotsial'nykh predstavlenii v sovremennoi frantsuzskoi psikhologii [The concept of social representations in modern French psychology]. Moscow: Publ. MGU, 1987. 128 p. (In Russ.).

4. Dontsov A.I., Zotova O.Yu., Tarasova L.V. Sotsial'nye predstavleniya o koronaviruse v nachale pandemii v Rossii [Social representations of COVID-19 at the beginning of the pandemy in Russia]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Psikhologiya i pedagogika = RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 422–444. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-422-444 (In Russ.).

5. Emel’yanova T.P. Razrabotka ponyatiya sotsialʹnogo predstavleniya – novyy etap v razvitii kontseptualʹnogo apparata sotsialʹnoy psikhologii [Development of the concept of social representation – a new stage in the development of the conceptual apparatus of social psychology]. In A.L. Zhuravlev, E.A. Sergienko (eds.). Razrabotka ponyatiy sovremennoy psikhologi [Development of the concepts of modern psychology]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Instituta psikhologii RAN, 2018, pp. 379–400. (In Russ.).

6. Emel’yanova T.P. Sotsialʹnoye predstavleniye – ponyatiye i kontseptsiya: itogi poslednego desyatiletiya [Social representation – concept and concept: results of the last decade]. Psikhologicheskiy zhurnal = Psychological journal, 2001. Vol. 22, pp. 39–47. (In Russ.).

7. Emel'yanova T.P. Sotsial'nyye predstavleniya: istoriya, teoriya i empiricheskiye issledovaniya [Social Representations: History, Theory, and Empirical Research]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Instituta psikhologii RAN, 2016. 476 p. (In Russ.).

8. Emel'yanova T.P., Israelyan T.V. Fenomen kognitivnoi polifazii v sotsial'nykh predstavleniyakh o dushevnobol'nykh [The Phenomenon of Cognitive Polyphasia in Social Representations on the Mentally Ill]. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Psikhologiya i pedagogika = RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 346–362. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-346-362 (In Russ.).

9. Suchkova E.L. Psikhologiya gruppovogo pravosoznaniya osuzhdennykh: usloviya obrazovaniya i strukturno-soderzhatel'naya organizatsiya. Avtoref. diss. … dokt. psikhol. nauk. [Psychology of group legal awareness of convicts: educational conditions and structural and substantive organization. Dr. Sci. (Psychology) Thesis]. Vologda, 2022. 50 p. (In Russ.).

10. Abrams D., Levine M. Norm formation: Revisiting Sherif's autokinetic illusion study. In J.R. Smith, A. Haslam (Eds.). Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies. Sage Publications Ltd, 2012, pp. 58–75.

11. Abric J.-C. La recherche du noyau central et de la zone muette des représentations sociales. In J.-C. Abric (ed.). Méthodes d’étude des représentations sociales. Ramonville Saint-Agne: Erès, 2003, pp. 59–80.

12. Bauer M., Gaskell G. Towards a paradigm for research on social representations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 1999. Vol. 29, pp. 163–186.

13. Ben Alaya D. The Jihadi Current and the Lay Thinking: A “Re-Anchorage” Process Hypothesis. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 363–374. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-363-374

14. Breakwell G. Empirical Approaches to Social Representations and Identity Processes: 20 Years on. Papers on Social Representations, 2011. Vol. 20, pp. 17.1–17.4.

15. Clémence A. Sens et analyse des différences dans les représentations sociales. In J.-C. Abric (ed.). Méthodes d’étude des représentations sociales. Ramonville Saint-Agne: Erès, 2003, pp. 165–178.

16. Dany L., Urdapilleta I., Lo Monaco G. Free associations and social representations: some reflections on rank-frequency and importance-frequency methods. Quality and Quantity, 2015. Vol. 49, pp. 489–507.

17. Doise W., Spini D., Clémence A. Human Rights Studies as Social Representations in a Cross-Cultural Context. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1999. Vol. 29, pp. 1–29.

18. Eicher V., Emery V., Maridor M., Gilles I., Bangerter A. Social Representations in Psychology: A Bibliometrical Analysis. Papers on Social Representations, 2011. Vol. 20, pp. 11.1–11.19.

19. Empirical approaches to social representations. In G. Breakwell, D. Canter (Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. 350 p.

20. Farr R.M. The roots of modern social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. 166 p.

21. Farr R.M. Theory and method in the study of social representations. In G.M. Breakwell, D.V. Canter (eds.). Empirical approaches to social representations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 15–38.

22. Festinger L. A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 1954. Vol. 7, pp. 117–140. DOI:10.1177/001872675400700202

23. Flament С., Rouquette M.-L. Anatomie des idées ordinaires. Paris: Armand Colin, 2003. 256 p.

24. Galli I., Fasanelli R. From Prototypical Stimuli to Iconographic Stimuli: The Power of Images in the Study of Social Representations. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 391–401. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-391-401

25. Jodelet D. Madness and social representations: Living with the mad in one French community. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. 316 p.

26. Jodelet D. The Notion of Common and Social Representations. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 299–314. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-299-314

27. Lahlou S. Social Representations and Individual Representations: What is the Difference? And Why are Individual Representations Similar? RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 315–331. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-315-331

28. Les représentations sociales: Théories, méthodes et applications. In G. Lo Monaco, S. Delouvée, P. Rateau (eds.). Bruxelles: De Boeck Supérieur, 2016. 656 p.

29. Lo Monaco G., Lheureux F., Halimi-Falkowicz S. Le test d’indépendance au contexte (TIC): une nouvelle technique d’étude de la structure représentationnelle. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 2008.Vol. 67, pp. 119–123.

30. Lo Monaco G., Piermattéo A., Rateau P., Tavani J.L. Methods for Studying the Structure of Social Representations: A Critical Review and Agenda for Future Research. Journal for The Theory of Social Behaviour, 2017. Vol. 47, pp. 306–331.

31. Moliner P. On Serge Moscovici’s 95th Anniversary: The Theory of Social Representations – History, Postulates and Dissemination. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2020. Vol. 17, pp. 524–536.

32. Moliner P. Social psychology of pictures. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020. 130 p.

33. Moliner P., Abric J.C. Central Core Theory. In G. Sammut, E. Andreouli, G. Gaskell, J. Valsiner (eds.). The Cambridge Handbook Of Social Representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, pp. 83–95. DOI:10.1017/CBO9781107323650.009

34. Moliner P., Bovina I.B. Introduction: The Heuristic Value of Social Representations Theory. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021.Vol. 18, pp. 291–298. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-291-298

35. Moliner P., Guimelli C. Les représentations sociales. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 2015. 139 p.

36. Moliner P., Lo Monaco G. Méthodes d’association verbale pour les sciences humaines et sociales. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 2017. 190 p.

37. Moscovici S. La Psychanalyse: son image et son public. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1976. 652 p.

38. Moscovici S. The phenomenon of social representations. In G.Duveen (ed.). Social representations: explorations in social psychology. N.Y.: New York University Press, 2000, pp. 18–77.

39. Moscovici S. Why a theory of social representations? In K. Deaux, G. Philogène (eds.). Representations of the social: bridging theoretical traditions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2001, pp. 18–61.

40. Parales Quenza C.J. On the structural approach to social representations. Theory and psychology, 2005. Vol. 15, pp. 77–100.

41. Pizarro J., Cakal H., Méndez L., Costa S., Zumeta L.N., Gracia-Leiva M., Basabe N., Navarro-Carrillo G., Cazan A.M., Keshavarzi S., López-López W., Yahiiaiev I., Alzugaray-Ponce C., Villagrán L., Moyano-Díaz E., Petrović N., Mathias A., Techio E.M., Wlodarczyk A., Alfaro-Beracoechea L., Ibarra M.L., Psaltis C., Michael A., Mhaskar S., Martinez-Zelaya G., Bilbao M., Delfino G., Carvalho C.L., Pinto I.R., Mohzin F.Z., Espinosa A., Cueto R.M., Cavalli S. Tell me what you are like and I will tell you what you believe in: Social representations of COVID-19 in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Papers on Social Representations, 2020. Vol. 29, pp. 2.1–2.38.

42. Pozzi M., Fasanelli R., Marta E., Ellena A.M., Virgilio G., Di Taranto A., Pistoni C. Social Representation of Family: A Comparative Study on Italian Young and Older Adults. Journal of Family, 2021, pp. 752–68. DOI:10.1177/0192513X21994160

43. Prost M., Piermattéo A., Lo Monaco G. Représentations sociales et distanciation intergroupe: Étude de la régulation structurale de la divergence représentationnelle. CIPS 2022, Bordeaux, 11-13 juillet; 2022.

44. Rateau P., Lo Monaco G. The Mute Zone of Social Representations and the Effects of (Un)Masking: Review and Prospects. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 375–390. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-375-390

45. Rateau P., Moliner P., Guimelli C., Abric J. Social representation theory. In P.A. Van Lange, A.W. Kruglanski, E.T. Higgins (eds.) Handbook of theories of social psychology: volume 2. SAGE Publications Ltd, 2012. P. 477–497.

46. Rateau P., Tavani J.-L., Delouvée S. Social representations of the coronavirus and causal perception of its origin: The role of reasons for fear. Health, 2021. DOI:10.1177/13634593211005172

47. de Rosa A.S. Mise en réseau scientifique et cartographie de la dissémination de la théorie des représentations sociales et son impact sur la culture bibliométrique. In G. Lo Monaco, S. Delouvée, P. Rateau (eds.).Les représentations sociales: Théories, méthodes et applications. Bruxelles: De Boeck Supérieur, 2016, pp. 51–68.

48. Sherif M. A study of some social factors in perception. Archives of Psychology, 1935. 60 p.

49. The Cambridge Handbook of Social Representations. In G. Sammut, E. Andreouli, G. Gaskell, J. Valsiner (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 498 p.

50. Tkhostov A.Sh., Rikel A.M., Vialkova M.Ye. Fake News through the Eyes of Three Generations of Russians: Differences and Similarities in Social Representations. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2022. Vol. 15, pp. 83–102. DOI:10.11621/pir.2022.0106

51. Vergès P. L'Évocation de l’argent: une méthode pour la définition du noyau central d’une représentation. Bulletin de psychologie, 1992. T. XLV (405), pp. 203–209.

52. Wagner W., Kronberger N. Killer tomatoes! Collective symbolic coping with biotechnology. In K. Deaux, G. Philogene (eds.). Representations of the social: Bridging theoretical traditions. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001, pp. 147–164.

53. Wagner W., Raudsepp M. Representations in Intergroup Relations: Reflexivity, Meta-Representations, and Interobjectivity. RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics, 2021. Vol. 18, pp. 332–345. DOI:10.22363/2313-1683-2021-18-2-332-345

Information About the Authors

Inna B. Bovina, Doctor of Psychology, Research Director, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical and Legal Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9497-6199, e-mail: innabovina@yandex.ru

Nikolay V. Dvoryanchikov, PhD in Psychology, Docent, Dean, Faculty of Legal and Forensic Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1462-5469, e-mail: dvorian@gmail.com

Darya V. Melnikova, Lecturer, Department of Clinical and Forensic Psychology, Faculty of Legal Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4501-8207, e-mail: melnikovadv@mgppu.ru

Nikita V. Lavreshkin, Psychologist, deviantologist, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-2057, e-mail: lavreshkinnv@gmail.com

Metrics

Views

Total: 991
Previous month: 77
Current month: 22

Downloads

Total: 437
Previous month: 45
Current month: 23