Cognitive Factors of Differences in Vaccination Patterns: the Perceived Risks of Action and Inaction



In recent years, worldwide decrease in vaccination coverage due to the negative attitudes of the population towards vaccination has been detected. Th is article has been tasked to quantify the applicability of the model of health beliefs (Health Belief Model) and its components to predict the vaccination patterns in a Russian population sample (city of Saint-Petersburg). We used the subsample of persons who have minor children (N = 260) from a representative telephone survey of adult residents of St. Petersburg. About 20% of the respondents have incompletely vaccinated children; including 4% vaccinated incompletely in the absence of medical grounds. Th e most predictive component of the model in relation to the vaccination pattern is a perceived vaccine safety (barrier). Th e perceived disease susceptibility and severity of preventable diseases did not act as signifi cant predictors of the vaccination pattern.

General Information

Keywords: Health Belief Model, vaccination, vaccination refusal, perceived risks, perceived benefits, Russia

Journal rubric: Social and Cross-Cultural Psychology

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Eritsyan K.Y. Cognitive Factors of Differences in Vaccination Patterns: the Perceived Risks of Action and Inaction. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2016. no. 2, pp. 98–106. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


Glanz J. M., Newcomer S. R., Narwaney K. J., Hambidge S.J., Daley M. F., Wagner N. M., McClure D. L., Xu S., Lee G. M., Rowhani-Rahbar A., Nelson J. C., Donahue J. G., Naleway A. L., Nordin J. D., Lugg M. M., Weintraub E. S. A population-based cohort study of undervaccination in 8 managed care organizations across the United States. JAMA pediatrics, 2013, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 274–281.

Daniels D., Jiles R. B., Klevens R. M., Herrera G. A. Undervaccinated African-American preschoolers: A case of missed opportunities. American journal of preventive medicine, 2001, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 61–68.

Ome S. B., Pan W. K., Halsey N. A., Stokley S., Moulton L. H., Navar A. M., Pierce M., Salmon D. A. Nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements: secular trends and association of state policies with pertussis incidence. JAMA, 2006, vol. 296, no. 14, pp. 1757–1763.

Larson H. J., Jarrett C., Eckersberger E., Smith D.M., Paterson P. Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: A systematic review of published literature, 2007–2012. Vaccine, 2014, vol. 32, no. 19, pp. 2150–2159.

Saada A., Lieu T. A., Morain S. R., Zikmund-Fisher B. J., Wittenberg E. Parents’ Choices and Rationales for Alternative Vaccination Schedules A Qualitative Study. Clinical pediatrics, 2015, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 236–243.

Benin A. L., Wisler-Scher D. J., Colson E., Shapiro E. D., Holmboe E. S. Qualitative analysis of mothers’ decision-making about vaccines for infants: the importance of trust. Pediatrics, 2006, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 1532–1541.

Gust D. A., Darling N., Kennedy A., Schwartz B. Parents with doubts about vaccines: which vaccines and reasons why. Pediatrics, 2008, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 718–725.

Dempsey A. F., Schaffer S., Singer D., Butchart A., Davis M., Freed G. L. Alternative vaccination schedule preferences among parents of young children. Pediatrics, 2011, vol. 128. Issue 5, pp. 848–856.

Leask J., Kinnersley P., Jackson C., Cheater F., Bedford H., Rowles G. Communicating with parents about vaccination: a framework for health professionals. BMC pediatrics, 2012, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 154.

Rosenstock I. M., Strecher V. J., Becker M. H. Social learning theory and the health belief model. Health Education and Behavior, 1988, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 175–183.

Eritsyan K., Antonova N., Tsvetkova L. Studies of anti-vaccination behavior and attitudes: results of a systematic review. Psychology in Russia: State of Art. In press.

Carpenter C. J. A meta-analysis of the eff ectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior. Health communication, 2010, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 661–669.

Antonova N. A., Eritsyan K. Y., Dubrovsky R. G., Spirina V. L. Otkaz ot vaktsinatsii: kachestvennyi analiz biografi cheskikh interv'iu [Refusal of vaccination: qualitative analysis of biographical interviews]. Teoriia i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiia [Theory and practice of social development], 2014, no. 20. pp. 208–211. (In Russian)

Telephone survey. The method’s description. Available at: (accessed 25.03.2016).

Nevo B. Face validity revisited. Journal of Educational Measurement, 1985, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 287–293.

Zuzak T. J., Zuzak-Siegrist I., Rist L., Staubli G., Simoes-Wust A. P. Attitudes towards vaccination: users of complementary and alternative medicine versus non-users. Swiss medical weekly, 2008, vol. 138, no. 47, pp. 713.

Mollema L., Wijers N., Hahné S. J., van der Klis F. R., Boshuizen H. C., de Melker H. E. Participation in and attitude towards the national immunization program in the Netherlands: data from population-based questionnaires. BMC public health, 2012, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 57.

Brewer N. T., Chapman G. B., Gibbons F.X., Gerrard M., McCaul K. D., Weinstein N. D. Metaanalysis of the relationship between risk perception and health behavior: the example of vaccination. Health Psychology, 2007, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 136.

Information About the Authors

Ksenia Y. Eritsyan, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Saint-Petersburg School of Social Sciences and Ar-ea Studies, HSE University, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 41
Previous month: 2
Current month: 4


Total: 11
Previous month: 0
Current month: 0