Implicit Learning in Dyadic Interaction

28

Abstract

The study examined the eff ect of dyadic interaction on the use of implicit knowledge in a perceptual categorization task. In the fi rst phase, participants memorized images of the target category. In the sec-ond and the third phases they categorized new stimuli. In the dyadic condition the second phase was held in a pair, and the third phase individually. In the individual condition participants completed all three phases on their own. Implicit knowledge was observed in both groups, but its stability was higher aft er work in pairs. Awareness of the implicit rule in both conditions was low, however participants of the dyadic condition mentioned less irrelevant characteristics of stimuli in the postexperimental questionnaire. The results indicate that dyadic interaction promotes the use of implicit knowledge.

General Information

Keywords: implicit learning, perceptual categorization, verbal overshadowing, dyadic interaction, group judgments, social verification

Journal rubric: General Psychology, Personality Psychology, History of Psychology

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Tikhonov R.V., Moroshkina N.V. Implicit Learning in Dyadic Interaction . Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2016. no. 4, pp. 75–87. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

Ashby F. G., Maddox W. T. Human Category Learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 2005, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 149–178.

Hart A. Knowledge Acquisition for Expert Systems. Knowledge, Skill and Artificial Intelligence. London, Springer Publ., 1988, pp. 103–111.

Chervinskaja K. R. Izvlechenie jekspertnyh znanij: trudnosti i puti ih razreshenija [Expert knowledge acquisition: challenges and solutions]. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Series 12, 2009, issue 3, no. 2, pp. 23–33. (In Russian)

Moroshkina N. V., Ivanchej I. I. Implicitnoe nauchenie: issledovanie sootnoshenija osoznavaemyh i neosoznavaemyh processov v kognitivnoj psihologii [Implicit Learning: A Study of Relationships Between Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Cognitive Psychology]. Metodologiia i istoriia psikhologii [Methodology and History of Psychology], 2012, no. 4, pp. 109–131. (In Russian)

Wilson T. D., Schooler J. W. Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 181–192.

Schooler J. W., Engstler-Schooler T. Y. Verbal overshadowing of visual memories: Some things are better left unsaid. Cognitive Psychology, 1990, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 36–71.

Flegal K. E., Anderson M. C. Overthinking skilled motor performance: Or why those who teach can’t do. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2008, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 927–932.

Melcher J. M., Schooler J. W. Perceptual and conceptual training mediate the verbal overshadowing effect in an unfamiliar domain. Memory & Cognition, 2004, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 618–631.

Melcher J. M., Schooler J. W. The misremembrance of wines past: Verbal and perceptual expertise differentially mediate verbal overshadowing of taste memory. Journal of memory and language, 1996, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 231–245.

Chin J. M., Schooler J. W. Why do words hurt? Content, process, and criterion shift accounts of verbal overshadowing. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2008, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 396–413.

Festinger L. A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations, 1954, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 117–140.

Bandura A. Teorija social’nogo nauchenija [Social learning theory]. St. Petersburg, Evraziya Publ., 2000. 320 p. (In Russian)

Allahverdov V. M. Opyt teoreticheskoj psihologii (v zhanre nauchnoj revoljucii) [An essay on theoretical psychology]. St. Petersburg, Pechatnyy dvor Publ., 1993. 328 p. (In Russian)

Ross M., Spencer S. J., Blatz C. W., Restorick E. Collaboration reduces the frequency of false memories in older and younger adults. Psychology and Aging, 2008, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85–92.

Hamilton R. W., Puntoni S., Tavassoli N. T. Categorization by groups and individuals. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2010, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 70–81.

Gershkovich V. A., Moroshkina N. V., Naumenko O. V., Allahverdov V. M. Social’naja verifi kacija gipotez pri reshenii zadach vysokoj stepeni neopredelennosti [Social verifi cation of hypothesis in high un-certainty tasks]. Ehksperimental’naya psikhologiya v Rossii: traditsii i perspektivy [ Experimental psychology in Russia: traditions and perspectives]. Moscow, Institut psikhol. RАN, 2010, pp. 372–376. (In Russian)

Galton F. Vox Populi. Nature, 1907, vol. 75, no. 1949, pp. 450–451.

Peirce J. W. PsychoPy — psychophysics software in Python. Journal of neuroscience methods, 2007, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 8–13.

Ivanchej I. I. Vlijanie protivorechivoj obratnoj svjazi na osoznanie implicitnogo znanija [The effect of controversial feedback on explication of implicit knowledge]. Teoreticheskie i prikladnye problemy psihologii myshlenija: mater. Tret’ej konf. molodyh uchenyh pamjati K. Dunkera [Theoretical and applied issues of psychology of thinking]. Moscow, RGGU, 2012, pp. 66–72. (In Russian)

Jacoby L. L. A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 1991, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 513–541.

Mealor A. D., Dienes Z. Explicit feedback maintains implicit knowledge. Consciousness and Cognition, 2013, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 822–832.

Nihei Y., Terashima M., Suzuki I., Morikawa S. Why are four eyes better than two? Effects of col-laboration on the detection of errors in proofreading. Japanese Psychol Res Japanese Psychological Research, 2002, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 173–179.

Meissner C. A., Brigham J. C., Kelley C. M. The influence of retrieval processes in verbal overshadowing. Memory and Cognition, 2001, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 176–186.

Information About the Authors

Roman V. Tikhonov, PhD in Psychology, Junior Researcher, Laboratory for Cognitive Studies, Saint Petersburg State University, Junior Researcher, Laboratory of Sociology in Education and Science, HSE University — Saint Petersburg, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1884-1903, e-mail: roman.tikhonov@me.com

Nadezhda V. Moroshkina, PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Cognitive Research Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia, e-mail: moroshkina.n@gmail.com

Metrics

Views

Total: 62
Previous month: 6
Current month: 0

Downloads

Total: 28
Previous month: 4
Current month: 0