Russian Psychological Issues
JournalsTopicsAuthorsEditor's Choice For AuthorsAbout PsyJournals.ruContact Us

  Previous issue (2020. Vol. 13, no. 1)

Included in Web of Science СС (ESCI)


Experimental Psychology (Russia)

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2072-7593

ISSN (online): 2311-7036


License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Started in 2008

Published quarterly

Free of fees
Open Access Journal


The Flynn Effect in Russia 199

The term «the Flynn Effect» is accepted to designate a phenomenon of the observed rising in IQ test performance over time. This phenomenon causes considerable interest around the world, not only among psychologists. It is studied to some extent in several tens of countries; however Russia was not included into their number until recently. In order to bridge this gap we take advantage of analyzing results of large-scale voluntary online testing on the site by means of psychometrically reliable cognitive test in 2012—18. Its items are addressed to verbal, numerical, spatial and perceptual speed factors of intelligence (with prevalence of the two first); it is possible to refer not less than ¾ of them to the sphere of crystallized intelligence. After performance of all cleaning procedures there were 238363 protocols suitable for the analysis. All participants are presumably men at the age of 18—40 years (M = 26.4±5.1). The analysis of IQ scores among the persons who were born in 1974—1999 revealed that up to the middle of the 80th the decline of the test scores took place which then replaced by linear growth which rate was estimated about 0.19 IQ points per year. However if the correction for probable lowering influence of increase in age is made, growth rate of IQ scores can become closer to 0.3 points. It is shown that these results as a whole are consistent with earlier registered growth of estimates of fluid intelligence in cohorts of law force university entrants. Hypotheses concerning relations of this phenomenon with features of a social and economic situation in Russia in the 80—90th of the last century are offered.

Keywords: intelligence, general cognitive ability, Flynn Effect, Internet-based testing, the Orientation Test — Short Form, online testing

Column: Psychology of Intelligence


For Reference


The study was supported by Russian Scientific Foundation project № 17-78-30035.

  1. Valueva E.A., Belova S.S. Jeffekt Flinna: obzor sovremennyh dannyh // Psihologija. Zhurnal Vysshej shkoly jekonomiki. 2015. T. 12. № 4. S. 165—183.
  2. Praktikum po psihodiagnostike: Konkretnye psihodiagnosticheskie metodiki. M.: MGU, 1989. C. 112— 126.
  3. Radchenko Ju.I., Sugonjaev K.V. Razrabotka testovogo kompleksa dlja Internet-samotestirovanija potencial’nyh kandidatov na voennuju sluzhbu po kontraktu. Aktual’nye problemy psihologicheskogo obespechenija prakticheskoj dejatel’nosti silovyh struktur: sb. mat. 3-j Vseross. nauch.-prakt. konf. SPb.: Sankt-Peterburgskij imeni V.B. Bobkova filial RTA, 2014, 317—324.
  4. Sugonjaev K.V. Jeffekt Flinna po-rossijski. Sovremennaja psihodiagnostika Rossii. Preodolenie krizisa: sb. mat. III Vseross. konf. po psihologicheskoj diagnostike. T. 2. Redkollegija: N. A. Baturin (otv. red.) i dr. Cheljabinsk: JuUrGU, 2015. 173—177.
  5. Sugonjaev K.V., Radchenko Ju.I., Sokolov A.A. Dobrovol’noe Internet-testirovanie kak istochnik validnyh ocenok gruppovogo psihometricheskogo intellekta // Sibirskij psihologicheskih zhurnal. 2018. № 69. S. 6—32.
  6. Dutton E., van der Linden D., Lynn R. The negative Flynn Effect: A systematic literature review. Intelligence, 2016, vol. 59, pp. 163—169.
  7. Flynn J.R. The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 1984, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 29—51.
  8. Flynn J.R. Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 1987, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 171—191.
  9. Flynn J.R. Reflections about intelligence over 40 years. Intelligence, 2018, vol. 70, pp. 73—83.
  10. Flynn J.R., Shayer M. IQ decline and Piaget: Does the rot start at the top? Intelligence, 2018, vol. 66, pp. 112—121.
  11. Gottfredson L.S. Intelligence and social inequality: Why the biological link? Chamorro-Premuzic T., von Stumm S., Furnham A. (Eds.) The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, pp. 538—575.
  12. Hartshorne J.K., Germine L.T. When does cognitive functioning peak? The asynchronous rise and fall of different cognitive abilities across the life span. Psychological Science, 2015, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 433—443.
  13. Hausknecht J.P., Halpert J.A., Di Paolo N.T., Moriarty G.M.O. Retesting in selection: A meta-analysis of coaching and practice effects for tests of cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 373—385.
  14. Johnson W.T., Bouchard T.J. The structure of human intelligence: It is verbal, perceptual, and image rotation (VPR), not fluid and crystallized. Intelligence, 2005, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 393—416.
  15. Lynn R. Who discovered the Flynn Effect? A review of early studies of the secular increase of intelligence. Intelligence, 2013, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 765—769.
  16. Lynn R., Harvey J. The decline of the world’s IQ. Intelligence, 2008, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 112—120.
  17. Pietschnig J., Voracek M. One century of global IQ gains: A formal meta-analysis of the Flynn Effect (1909—2013). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2015, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 282—306.
  18. Rindermann H., Becker D., Coyle T.R. Survey of expert opinion on intelligence: The FLynn effect and the future of intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 2017, vol. 106, pp. 242—247.
  19. Rindermann H., Becker D. FLynn-effect and economic growth: Do national increases in intelligence lead to increases in GDP? Intelligence, 2018, vol. 69, pp. 87—93.
  20. Rodgers J.L. Methodological issues associated with studying the Flynn Effect: Exploratory and confirmatory efforts in the past, present, and future. Journal of Intelligence, 2015, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 111—120.
  21. Scharfen J., Peters J.M., Holling H. Retest effects in cognitive ability tests: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 2018, vol. 67, pp. 44—66.
  22. Sugonyaev K., Grigoriev A., Lynn R. A new study of differences in intelligence in the provinces and regions of the Russian Federation and their demographic and geographical correlates. Mankind Quarterly, 2018, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 31—37.
  23. Twenge J.M., Campbell W.K., Sherman R.A. Declines in vocabulary among American adults within levels of educational attainment, 1974—2016. Intelligence, 2019, vol. 76, article 101377.
  24. Williams R.L. Overview of the Flynn effect. Intelligence, 2013, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 753—764.
  25. Wongupparaj P., Kumari V., Morris R.G. A cross-temporal meta-analysis of Raven’s Progressive Matrices: Age groups and developing versus developed countries. Intelligence, 2015, vol. 49, pp. 1—9.

© 2007–2020 Portal of Russian Psychological Publications. All rights reserved in Russian

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

Catalogue of academic journals in psychology & education MSUPE

Creative Commons License Open Access Repository

RSS Psyjournals at facebook Psyjournals at Twitter Psyjournals at Youtube ??????.???????