The fundamental dilemma of the Vygotsky’s theory is to approach the higher mental phenomena both as the functions of the brain structures and meaning structures simultaneously, moreover, these structures are inter-individual, as opposed to intra-individual. The arguments of the article were derived from the different sources: from the Vygotsky school’s theory on functional organs, from the ecological theory of visual perception (Gibson), from the ethological empirical data on the territorial behavior of populations, from the Szentágothai theory of modular organization of the contacting neurons and from the physical theory by Schrödinger on complementarity of corpuscular and wave representations. These arguments focus on the alternative reasoning to the dominant ones in academic psychology that are closed in the framework of the individual organism. The proposed alternative goes beyond this framework, first, supra-individual, and secondly, out-of-the-organismic structures.
Keywords: Vygotsky, brain, meaning, functional organ, models of the brain: Szentágothai versus Eccles, supraindividual and out-of-the-organismic structures