The Development of Consciousness in Children Through the Lens of L.I. Bozhovich’s Psychological System



The paper focuses on the importance of L.I. Bozhovich's ideas in the context of new research programmes on consciousness. It reveals the basic characteristics of the psychological system (L. S. Vygotsky) underlying L.I. Bozhovich's research on the problem of personality formation in childhood (the motivational sphere as a core factor, the structure of motives, the hierarchy of motives, etc.) The formation and dynamics of consciousness in L.I. Bozhovich’s system is realized both in the processes of external determination and in self-determination of personality (novelty-seeking, internal position). The psychological systems of Vygotsky and Bozhovich are considered as complementary in their views on such components of consciousness as intellect (communication, understanding, synthesis) and affect (the need for new experiences, mediated motives, inner position). Modern technological progress promotes the next cultural-historical inversion of the ‘affect/intellect’ dilemma determined by the increasing digitalization processess (artificial intelligence) and social communication.

General Information

Keywords: psychological system, L.I. Bozhovich, affect, needs, motives, social situation, child development, personality, consciousness

Journal rubric: Memorable Dates

Article type: scientific article


Acknowledgements. The author is grateful to M.V. Yermolayeva and D.V. Lubovsky for their invaluable assistance in realisation of the topic and great support of creative efforts; also, to L.S. Akopyan and A.V. Belous for their tireless working out of problem solving situations.

For citation: Akopov G.V. The Development of Consciousness in Children Through the Lens of L.I. Bozhovich’s Psychological System. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2019. Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 72–78. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2019150208. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Garnik V. Akopov, Doctor of Psychology, Doctor of Psychology, Chief Researcher of the Scientific Research Center, Professor of the Department of General and Social Psychology, Samara branch of the State Autonomous educational institution of Moscow "Moscow city university", Samara, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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