Actions with Virtual Objects on Touch Screen Devices: Analysing the Perceptual Experience of Contemporary Preschoolers

241

Abstract

The paper focuses on the analysis of perception of virtual objects (objects of the virtual environment displayed on the screens of touch screen devices) in children of early and preschool age engaged in actions with these objects. The first part of the article reviews the psychological outcomes of a child mastering how to operate a touch screen device as a tool from the standpoint of D.B. Elkonin’s theory of child development and P.Ya. Galperin’s concept of the functional differences between a tool and a means. In the second part of the article we analyze the perceptual experience obtained by children of early and preschool age when using touchscreen devices. As we see it, the main distinguishing feature of perception of virtual objects is the discrepancy between the information received through the visual and haptic channels. We analyze the results of experimental studies that reveal the impact of this phenomenon on the process of perception of virtual objects and the extent to which the representations of virtual and real objects differ: 1) the ability of children to process haptic information, as well as to implement intermodal transfer, improves at the age of 5 to 7 years; 2) in situations of a significant discrepancy in information from different senses, children under 6 do not perform multisensory integration, but rely on one sense (usually vision). In our pilot study (17 children aged 4—5 years), a significant increase in the time of haptic recognition of a virtual object as compared to a visually perceived one (Temp = 28 at p ≤ 0.05) was detected. This can be taken as an argument in favor of the fact that children move beyond the limits of processing only visual information in situations of visual-haptic discrepancy.

General Information

Keywords: virtual reality, haptic perception, visual-haptic mismatch, multisensory integration, touch¬screen, preschoolers

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/chp.2021170109

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 20-013- 00308 А.

For citation: Krylova S.G., Vodyakha Y.E. Actions with Virtual Objects on Touch Screen Devices: Analysing the Perceptual Experience of Contemporary Preschoolers. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2021. Vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 59–66. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2021170109. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Vygotsky L.S. Sobraniye sochineniy: T.6. Nauchnoye nasledstvo [Collected Works: T. 6 Scientific legacy]. Yaroshevsky M.G. (ed.), Moscow: Pedagogy, 1984. 400 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Gal’perin P.Ya. Psikhologicheskoye razlichiye orudiy cheloveka i vspomogatel’nykh sredstv u zhivotnykh i yego znacheniye [The psychological difference between human tools and auxiliary means in animals and its significance]. In Podol’skiy A.I. (ed.), Psikhologiya kak ob”yektivnaya nauka: izbrannyye psikhologicheskiye Trudy [Psychology as an objective science: selected psychological works]. Moscow: Institut Prakticheskoy Psikhologii Publ., Voronezh: “Modek” Publ., 1998, pp. 37—93. (In Russ.).
  3. Krylova S.G., Vodyakha Yu.E., Minyurova S.A. Poznaniye virtual’nogo mira det’mi kak «vtoroy real’nosti» [Cognition of the virtual world by children as a “second reality”]. In Yershovoy R.V. (ed.), Tsifrovoye obshchestvo kak kul’turno-istoricheskiy kontekst razvitiya cheloveka: ot tsifrovoy kul’tury k kiberkul’ture [Digital society as a cultural-historical context of human development: from digital culture to cyberculture]. Kolomna: Gosudarstvennyy Sotsial’no-gumanitarnyy Universitet Publ., 2020, pp. 188—192. URL: http://gsgucafpsi.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/%D1% 81%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0% BA-2020-31.01-1.pdf (Accessed 07.07.2020). (In Russ.)
  4. Men’shikova G.YA., Kozlovskiy S.A., Polyakova N.V. Issledovaniye tselostnosti sistemy «glaz-golova-telo» pri pomoshchi tekhnologii virtual’noy real’nosti [Study of the integrity of the eye-head-body system using virtual reality technology]. Eksperimental’naya psikhologiya [Experimental Psychology], 2012. no. 3, pp. 115—121. (In Russ.).
  5. Shpittser M. Antimozg. Tsifrovyye tekhnologii i mozg: per. s nem [Anti-brain. Digital technology and the brain]. Moscow: AST Publ., 2014. 288 p. (In Russ.).
  6. El’konin D.B. Zametki o razvitii predmetnykh deystviy v rannem detstve [Notes on the development of objective actions in early childhood]. Vestnik MGU. Psikhologiya [Bulletin of Moscow State University. Psychology], 1978, no 3. pp. 87—100. URL: http://psychlib.ru/mgppu/EPr-1997/ EPR-0871.htm#$p87 (Accessed 07.07.2020). (In Russ.).
  7. Elkonin D.B. On the problem of periodization of mental development in childhood [To the problem of periodization of mental development in childhood]. Voprosy psikhologii [Psychology Issues], 1971, no. 4, pp. 66—86. URL: http://psychlib.ru/mgppu/EPr-1997/EPR-0661.htm#$p66 (Accessed 07.07.2020). (In Russ.).
  8. Bigelow A.E. Children’s tactile identification of miniaturized common objects. Developmental Psychology, 1981. Vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 111—114. DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.17.1.111
  9. Bushnell E.W., Weinberger N. Infants’ detection of visual-tactual discrepancies: asymmetries that indicate a directive role of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 1987. Vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 601—608. DOI:10.1037//0096-1523.13.4.601
  10. Carrier M., Cheever N., Rosen L., Benitez S., Chang J. Multitasking across generations: Multitasking choices and difficulty ratings in three generations of Americans. Computers in Human Behavior, 2009. Vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 483—489. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2008.10.012
  11. Colombo J., Brez C.C., Curtindale L.M. Infant perception and cognition In Lerner R.M., Easterbrooks M.A., Mistry J., Weiner I.B. (eds.), Handbook of psychology: Developmental psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons Publ., 2013, pp. 61—89.
  12. Holloway D., Green L., Livingstone S. Zero to eight. Young children and their internet use. London: EU Kids Online Publ., 2013. 36 p. URL: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/52630/1/ Zero_to_eight.pdf (Accessed 07.07.2020).
  13. Kalagher H., Jones S.S. Developmental change in young children’s use of haptic information in a visual task: the role of hand movement. Journal of Experimental Child  Psychology, 2011. Vol.108, no. 2, pp. 293—307. DOI:10.1016/j. jecp.2010.09.004
  14. Krylova S.G., Vodyaha Yu.E. An Experimental Study of Perception by Preschoolers: The Computer Models of Real Objects as Three-Dimensional on the Screens of Touchscreen Devices. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference «Digitalization of Education: History, Trends and Prospects» (DETP 2020): Atlantis Press, 2020, pp. 424—431. DOI:10.2991/assehr.k.200509.077
  15. Lederman S, Klatzky R. Hand movements: A Window into Haptic Object Recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 1987. Vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 342—368. DOI:10.1016/0010-0285(87)90008-9
  16. Loh K.K., Kanai R. How Has the Internet Reshaped Human Cognition? Neuroscientist, 2016. Vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 506—520. DOI:10.1177/1073858415595005
  17. Milner A.D., Bryant, P.E. Cross-modal matching by young children. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970. Vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 453—458. DOI:10.1037/ h0029174
  18. Piaget J. The origins of intelligence in children. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1952. 464 p. DOI:10.1037/11494-000
  19. Prensky M. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1. On the Horizon, 2001. Vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1—6. DOI:10.1108/10748120110424816
  20. Rose S.A., Gottfried A.W., Bridger W.H. Cross-modal transfer in 6-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 1981. Vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 661—669. DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.17.5.661
  21. Schorr S.B., Okamura A.M. Fingertip Tactile Devices for Virtual Object Manipulation and Exploration. Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2017, pp. 3115—3119. DOI:10.1145/3025453.3025744
  22. Sparrow B., Liu J., Wegner D.M. Google effects on memory: cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science, 2011. Vol. 333, pp. 776—778. DOI:10.1126/ science.1207745
  23. Sutter C., Drewing K., Müsseler J. Multisensory integration in action control. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014. Vol. 5, pp. 3—5. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00544
  24. Volkodav T., Semenovskikh T. Dichotomy of the «clip thinking» phenomenon. In Proceedings of ICEPS 2017 (International Conference on Education, Psychology, and Social Sciences). Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University, 2017. Vol. 4, pp. 345—353. URL: https://www.academia.edu/34769725/ Dichotomy_of_the_Clip_Thinking_Phenomenon (Accessed 07.07.2020).

Information About the Authors

Svetlana G. Krylova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Institute of Psychology, Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2089-7885, e-mail: s_g_krylova@mail.ru

Yuliya E. Vodyakha, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Institute of Psychology, Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6795-9174, e-mail: jullyaa@ya.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 597
Previous month: 4
Current month: 7

Downloads

Total: 241
Previous month: 2
Current month: 0